عنوان مقاله [English]
Vank cathedral or Surb Amenaprkich is one of the valuable historical monuments in Iran, which was built during the time of Shah Abbas Safavi by the Armenians who lived in Jolfa region of Isfahan during nine years (1655-1664); This cathedral, which is a Combination of Islamic architecture and Christian art, was built by order of Shah Abbas and in a different way from Armenian architecture, i.e. by using Iranian architecture and Islamic, but it was built optionally in interior decorations; Therefore, inside the cathedral, paintings of biblical stories (Old Testament and New Testament) were created by master painters such as Master Minas Zahra Bayan, Hovhaness Murkozes and their students. Now, according to the principle that the Christian religion is formed based on symbols and its primary art is iconography, the author aims to find the signs in the painting of the Last Judgment in Vank cathedral by using the semiotic model of Pierce. Analyze that image. Therefore, according to the classification of Peirce, the American semiologist and pragmatist, of signs which are divided into the three categories of symbol, profile and image, the present research seeks to answer the question that in Christianity, life after human death (heaven and hell) what is it like? According to the texts of the New Testament, resurrection is the day when the world will end and this is the time when Jesus Christ will appear for the Last Judgment. On this day, the souls of all people are resurrected together with their bodies and with all their characteristics and appear before God for evaluation and judgment, based on their belief in Christ, so that their eternal place, i.e. heaven and hell, is determined. In fact, the belief system of the majority of religions in the world is based on the fact that the dead pass through the gates before being sent to heaven or hell, which is the place of their eternal life. This theme, which has gained special importance in Christian art since the 7th century AD, was first painted by Michelangelo on the altar of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican, which later became a model for others such as the artists of the Vank cathedral. One of the reasons for choosing this theory is that it is possible to use the descriptive-analytical method to understand the concept and function of signs in the painting, as well as the available information about the way of life after the death of humans, which is based on the sayings of the Christian religion in the painting. It is depicted in the cathedral of Vank achieved. The information in this research has been collected and analyzed in a qualitative way through the library method, field method, direct observation of the work, and the traditional polling method, as well as the use of the Internet; The results of this information have proven the hypothesis of using semiotics to answer the research question. Therefore, the findings indicate that: in the painting of the final judgment, the symbols are divided into two separate categories, that is, with positive and negative meanings to express the events of the Day of Resurrection, as well as heaven and hell, of course, some of them are placed in different sections. And next to various elements, they may have different meanings. But next to symbols, other signs such as profiles are signs whose subjects can be observed and deduced, in fact, a profile such as the sound produced through trumpets and trumpets implies "hearing". And it should be said about icons that they are signs that are similar to their signifiers; Therefore, according to the principle that Christ is the incarnation of God, therefore God has a human image in the painting of the final judgment. As a result, in general, it should be said that the final judgment painting expresses part of the teachings of the Christian religion and the theme of human life after death by using signs that, by distinguishing and recognizing them, we can understand that the religion of Christ promises humans to heaven and hell. And it refers to Jesus Christ as the manifestation of God among humans. In fact, this religion believes that Christ sacrificed himself for the salvation of humanity and the forgiveness of human sins; So on the final day, those who believed in him (God) will be accepted in paradise; And the people who did not believe in the Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit) are tortured by the demons of the underworld that Lucifer, the exiled archangel, taught them because of their disobedience to God's commands. In the end, it is necessary to emphasize that each of the three aspects of signs played a role and was influential in the creation of the desired work.