عنوان مقاله [English]
Mircea Eliade (1907-1986) connects ancient events with ancient civilization beliefs and gives religious essence to them. This articles trying to deal Tahmasebi Shahnameh with mythical character of Fereydoun by Eliadeh religious phenomenology approach and analyzes its reflection in the painting entitled Fereydoun for examining boys traits, turn into a dragon canfigueation. Eliadeh believes activities that confront ancestor’s works are related to ancient ritual societies and in ancient world behavior and action are not accomplished unless they follow special reason and have religious ritual purpose. So any activity that takes place in ancient world and pursues a specific outcome is considered ritual. Eliade is one of the intellectuals who try to know religions by religious phenomenology and hermeneutics. He uses a different method that is common in history and he based his research on the religious and symbol maker human. He thought ancient systems regarding models and myths that don’t depend on time and place with repeatability have spread sacred beliefs during time. Therfore most of our ancestors works are in religious phenomenology field.Iran with ancient background has an exemplary role of transferring human and behavior values to the world by cearting exquisite and great works. Among Iran classic artistic and literary works that have presented myths and symbols are, Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh and Tahmasebi illustratedpoetry. Ferdowsi versified the myths and history of ancient Iran in an exquisite way and with a genealogical structure of the lives of heroes and Kings, he included many beliefs and rituals of Iran in his poems, Shahname. Ferdowsi`s creative imagery and scenery encouraged some rulers to illustrate the Shahnameh. For example, we can refer to Tahmasebi Shahnameh with 258 painting from exquisite illustrated poetical works of Safavid era. Faith in God, pure nature and honesty are fundamental features of shahnameh that man’s inner motivations based on religion and rituals cause his choices and decisions in the course of his life. There is religious ritual approach in mythical story of examining Fereydun’s boys` traits because he is able to change into dragon by his magic power. That’s how he can make decision by evaluating their behavior for division of his territory and government.The main purpose of the article is to pay attention to the Fereydoun’s character and other characters that is, the Dragon, the other faces of Fereydoun with extraterrestrial magic force; and his sons named Salm, Tour and Iraj of story. Since in Shahnameh all of the events related to princes, heroes, animals, plants and mythical creatures that are somehow related to the forces of good and evil – Ahuraian; demonic – undoubtedly, its paintings are also influenced by such as attitude, so it can be analyzed in terms of religious phenomenology. In this regard the attitude of the ancient mythologist and theologian Mircea Eliade is logical solution. Considering visualization especially Tahmasebi Shahnameh and Mircia Eliade’s theories, many books and articles have been published. These books have been analyzed from different aspect , but simultaneously regarding this painting and the related subject, no study has been done. So lackof study in terms of religious phenomenology from Iranian paintings that are full of symbolic and mysterious requires to be studied. Therefore this study has considered theoretical ideas of Eliade, Shahnameh’s story related to the painthing, nature and mythical personality of Fereydoun, then it analyses religious phenomenology by describing elements and motifs of this painting. About this context, questions are asked to know how Fereydoun transformation to dragon for examining boys is related to religious and mythical culture. How is the connection of religious phenomenology with human and inhuman elements of painting described? This article is theoretical – fundamental from purpose aspect and is analytical – descriptive from methodology. It studies according to religious phenomenology approach of Mircia Eliade. Compiling tools from library includes books, articles, Tahmasebi Shahnameh album and scientific sites. Also this research explain, respectively, Mircia Eliadeh theories, Shahname narration related to selected painting and the description motifs of this painting , in the end, it provides phenomenology analysis. The results of writing show that generally Fereydun’s character examining boys` traits and his power of transformation are all related to transcendental forces and the painter has tried with visualizing mythical space of story by symbolic elements. Skillful painter represents inner intention of Fereydoun with a black dragon symbol and his awareness of ancient thinking with a special intelligence. Big mouse reminds destructive deception, it can be a symbol of ruinous destiny for Fereydoun’s family. Ghorm or the ewe is symbol of divine glory refers to Fereydoun’s glory getting away as it climbs the top of the mountain. The presentation of horses colors especially blue color of Iraj’s horse can be a symbol of inner purity, knowledge and even his future desting namely joining eternity. Examining and being examined are fundamental principals of ancient life. Finally, it seems most of element and motifs of this painting have been elevated symbolically in order to express and transfer concepts of ancient Iran.