عنوان مقاله [English]
Design is defined as the human capacity to build society, on the one hand, to satisfy needs and give meaning to life, and on the other hand, to create a product through empirical and analytical methods. In the process of creating a work, designers respond and shape the world in which they live and form themselves based on their perception of the culture of that world. Today, as the issue of the impact of culture on design is an undeniable debate. Therefore, addressing it can to some extent bridge the gap in this direction. The purpose of this article is an analytical-comparative study of cultural design from the point of view of Stuart Hall and his theory of representation. In this research, we try to select some Iranian handmade packaging as a case study of the effect of culture on product design and how to identify them. Therefore, the questions of the present study are: Design, in which group of definitions of culture? What is the relationship between designer, culture, identity and environment? Could Stuart Hall's theory of representation be a comparative study of culture-based design from the perspective of Christopher and Levy? What is the method and quantity of the identity of Iranian artisan packaging? The present study is an analytical-comparative method with a qualitative approach, which explores the relationships between the designer, culture, identity and the environment from a fundamental point of view. And it was done through the collection of documentary information (library texts) and context. After studying the text of the most important research and works in the field of the effects of culture on design, this research expresses the effect of each society's culture on designer and design, examining the position of design among the practical definitions of culture, comparing the views of Christopher Alexander and Raymond Levy with Stuart Hall's theory of representation. Finally, selecting the target population, which is 233 packaging samples available in the Iranian market, and selecting 79 samples of the target population by stratified and probabilistic sampling with a quantitative approach to investigate the extent and identity of Iranian artisanal packaging. In this perspective, it is therefore a sort of theoretical study and analysis of the visual content, which, according to Hall's theory of representation, deals with the discovery of fundamental meanings in the message and is based on arguments deduced from the data. The result of the research indicates that, based on the definitions of culture and identity that were formulated at the beginning of the research, it can be said that the design and production of the product fall into all four categories of historical, psychological, structural definitions. and descriptive of the culture. In discussing identity, it should be borne in mind that the identity of each product reflects the identity of the designer and the audience community. Therefore, in design, by designing and creating the product, a systematic media and symbolic communication is established. Hall defines the cycle of culture as production, consumption, norms, identity and representation. Finally, a place for design in Hall's theory can be placed in the reference designer-centered approach and in the public-centered structural approach; That his design-oriented approach may be consistent with Alexandria's point of view; These two points should be considered that first, designers subconsciously incorporate culture into their design, then when designing they consciously use cultural symbols in their design to adapt the product as much as possible to the culture of the company. Product. In the public-oriented approach, which can be considered in line with Levy's vision, in designing and producing the product, the public, its culture and society should be considered in order to maintain the meaning and identity that revolve. in the cultural cycle. it should be passed on to the next generation, education should be provided and the culture of that society preserved. Designers in this field, representing the cultural symbols of society in packaging, introduced the identity of Iranian craftsmanship. However, due to the lack of sufficient attention to the field of culture-oriented design and the lack of comprehensive content in this regard, the designers were unable to consciously encode cultural phenomena into a strong structure and use various Iranian cultural symbols in the design .Whereas 57% of the packages available on the market have Iranian identity, but the identification method in 83% of these packages is limited to plant symbols (arabesque, paisley, gilding) and geometric symbols. While the Iranian culture is rich and has many symbols that can be used symbolically in packaging design.