عنوان مقاله [English]
In the field of painting, artists have penetrated the conventional boundaries of painting and set new standards, including Mohammad Siah Qalam. The problem of this research is how to use pictorial and visual elements as well as design in Mohammad Siah Qalam's divination. The difference between this research and the previous researches is in dealing with the pictorial, visual and design elements in Mohammad Siah Qalam's divination to show the two concepts of ugliness and beauty at the same time. One of the goals of this research is to deal with the neglected aspects of Siah Qalam's madhouses, as well as to analyze how ugly manifestations are reflected in it, with an emphasis on Mohammad Siah Qalam's demon paintings.Beauty in Iranian painting is the result of visual harmony and proportion; The beauty of harmony and proportion is a relative matter that is influenced by factors such as living environment, practice, experience, and education, and the repetition of concepts based on certain forms with similar structures causes the soul to get used to it, and this habit of the soul causes beauty. Be these concepts. But beauty, if it is relative to the truth, will always be beautiful and is not relative; Mohammad Siah Qalam painted the daily life of ordinary people during his lifetime and ignored the rules of the royal workshop-library, he is considered a realist artist, and at the same time, the way he dealt with the subjects he chose was with a formal method. Mohammad Siah Qalam, in his second period of painting, created a transformation in his work style; And for social criticism, he chose satire along with Grotesquera. The necessity and importance of the upcoming research is to investigate and research about the concepts and causes of this style of painting (which is neglected compared to the conventional style of the time of the painter under study); The new and original aspect of this research is the neglect of the concept of ugliness and specifically ugliness and madness in Iranian painting. The difference between this research and the previous researches is in dealing with the pictorial and visual elements and design in Mohammad Siah Qalam's divination to show the two concepts of ugliness and beauty at the same time. The aspect of innovation in the analysis is the reflection of the opposition of these two concepts in the demonizations of Professor Mohammad Siah Qalam. The concept called "beautiful" is one of the constant elements in the discussions of the philosophy of art, and different views have been presented about it. In parallel with beauty, another concept is formed called "ugliness". Unlike beauty, it is not the focus of art and philosophy researchers. In fact, the definition of ugliness is using the concept of beauty. The concept of evil is related to ugliness. To define these two concepts, their opposite concepts (goodness and beauty) can be used. These concepts can be traced in the history of Iranian art and painting. Ugliness plays an important role in this, it has been neglected. This role is remarkable and thoughtful in the works of painting and especially in the madness of Mohammad Sieh Qalam. An artist whose tendency to break the foundation and remove familiarity can be seen in his works. Regarding the way of coloring the works of Mohammad Siah Qalam, it should be said that in most of the works related to the second period of his work, we see the use of partial and spiritual colors. But in the later style, the colors are not uniform and dark colors are used. In such a way that he first removed the motifs with dark colors and then using dark colors, he painted them raw brown grays. The color in the works of black pen is very heavy and harsh and sometimes very bright; Garlic to light pea grades. Different tones of bright colors were used in his painting, the colors were dull and dark. The works of the second period of his paintings are different works compared to the first period, which have symbolic concepts in all areas such as the type of frame, the type of lines, the coloring method.This research has collected the materials using a descriptive-analytical method and using vouchers, library sources and documents. The method of qualitative information analysis has been investigated through information analysis using books, articles, researches and researches related to the subject of Mohammad Siah Qalam's paintings (here focusing on visual and visual elements and design). The findings of the research indicate that there are elements of humor, play, entertainment and vitality in the black ink drawings. In order to draw beauty and ugliness, he has used the lens of focusing on visual elements and design in murals, which categorization and separation are among the achievements of this research.