نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 کارشناس ارشد صنایع دستی، گروه صنایع دستی، دانشکده هنرهای کاربردی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران.
2 دانشیار گروه صنایع دستی، دانشکده هنرهای کاربردی،دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
The painting of persian consist of the accompaniment of a Peony (Red Rose) and a bird that is often unfamiliar on the stem, or a combination of two celestial Iris and white lilies, a single tulip or Narcissus plant. The pictorial foundations of flowers and birds can be considered as symbolic elements of pre-Islamic illustrations. In the holy trinity of the Iranians, “Mitra, Ahuramazda and Anahita” can be seen in the form of transformed Mitra with the Lotus (as we see on the stonecarving of Taq Bostan arch), Ahuramazda with a winged disk depicting the role of simorgh or Sien-morq and Anahita is the goddess of water purity. With the role of Iris, which are the flowers of Amshasbandan Amertat and Hwrtat. In the Islamic period, due to the limitations of iconography and illustration, this abstraction in the form of two Islamic or Islimi roles, Arabesque (Iris) and Lotus or Khatai found their way as the pre-Islamic religious image pattern prevailed in places such as mosques and altars. The purpose is to study how the pictorial traditions of ancient Iran continued until the abstraction of roses? So what is the transformation of the pictorial traditions of the ancient gods of Iran in the red rose of the Islamic period and what is the identity of the birds in this art? The research method is descriptive-analytical and data collection is library method. The role of the Lotus and the rooster, gave way to the prophet Muhammad and his ascension by emphasizing the manichaean Lotus and rose flowers (peony) in the Islamic period. Examination of pre-islamic artistic and cultural influences reveals an important example of the prophet’s meeting with the white rooster, the rooster sitting on An Throne (orang), which was of special importance to the manichaeans, using symmetrical patterns common in the pre-islamic period and in the works of the Timurid period. Safavid and Qajar artists with more emphasis on the principle of abstraction tried to present these patterns in the style and context of their time. In the Safavid period, although there was a tendency for traditional roles, but the emergence of western painting caused a change in the design and role of flowers and birds. The artists who tried to achieve the patterns of naturalism and realism that they learned from the european painters did not forget their themes and in the period of Afshar and Zand, using the creative mind and influenced by mystical literature, turned the rose into a symbol of prophet Muhammad. The composition of flowers and bird should be more regular and create new compositions using various flowers, but in the early Qajar period, this combination increased on practical works, especially lacquer, and its most used in this period was the cover of the Quranic book and religious prayers, which show it was the artists’ awareness of the subject; If the use of sleeping birds as a representative of the artist’s condition and the figures of recitation and recourse in the name of the pure Imams confirms this fact.