عنوان مقاله [English]
Men’s clothing underwent major transformations dur-ing the Qajar period in Iran, influencing the qualities of textiles used for this purpose. With a historical-analytical design, this developmental study aimed to analyze the designs, motifs, colors, and types of textiles used in men’s balapush (a type of loose-fitting overgarment) in Qajar Iran. Accordingly, the main question was: How did changes in men’s balapush influence the qualities of Qajar textiles and how were they manifested in their designs, motifs, colors, and types? The data were collected through documentary research, focusing on written and pictorial sources. With the help of text and image analysis, approximately thirty travelogues, as primary written sources, were indexed and picture- and painting-oriented sources were studied. The statistical population included Qajar men’s balapush and probability classification sampling was utilized to scrutinize the qualities of the textiles used for this purpose in terms of design, motif, color, and type. The findings reveled that the main overgarments worn by Qajar men were gaba (a long frock-looking garment open in front) and cummerbund, jobbeh (a kind of cloak) or aba (a long robe), sardari (a frock pleated round the waist), and kolijeh (a jacket with a long skirt). Over this 120-year historical period, many of these overgarments were replaced and ultimately, all were outmoded when Western coats and overcoats came into vogue. From the dawn of the rule of Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar, full-length gabas were standard; however, during Muhammad Shah’s era, gabas became shorter (knee length), a trend that continued to Naser al-Din Shah’s era. Although textiles used for making gabas were usually self-colored, patterned and vagireh textiles were also common during the rule of Agha Muhammad Khan and Fath-Ali Shah. In the same period and particularly during the period under the rule of succeeding Qajar kings, i.e., Muhammad Shah and Naser al-Din Shah, using plain cotton, wool, and silk textiles with a vast range of colors were popularized. Therefore, almost all short gabas were made in plain colors. During these periods, a shawl was often worn as a cummerbund to fit a gaba around the waist. The most common cummerbund design was muharramat. Leather cummerbunds were peculiar to the military and courtiers; however, from the Naseri era, they began to replace the shawls. Moreover, sardari was influential in outmoding these shawls as it could be worn without a cummerbund, expect in formal and military occasions, and gradually replaced gaba during the Naseri era (mid-Qajar period). Termeh has been listed among the textiles used for making sardari. In addition, pictorial sources show that self-colored and mass-produced textiles were also used. Qajar men wore cotton and wool (mahoot) sardaris in limited colors including black, white, and some shades of gray like brown as per the season. Sardaris were eventually replaced with coats in late-Qajar period, i.e., the final years of Ahmad Shah’s rule. Jobbeh, aba, and kolijeh were also among the garments worn over gaba. Wearing jobbeh was an acceptable standard, particularly for the men of the court, during the first half of the Naseri era. Jobbehs were usually made with termeh textiles in vagireh design and in shades of brown and navy blue. Abas, which were initially popular among the common people, were traditional natural-colored plain wool garments worn in cold weather and while traveling. Later, they became peculiar to only the clergy, setting the stage for the popular appeal of overcoats. Qajar kolijehs were worn over long and short gabas and later sardaris. Besides bestowing a distinguished look, they were worn for warmth. Kolijehs had fur trims and elbow length sleeves. During Fath-Ali Shah’s era, they were made with textiles that had vagireh designs and floral motifs. However, instances from Muhammad Shah’s era reveal that they were mostly made with termeh or plain textiles. In Naseri era, kolijehs were only made with plain or termeh textiles and were replaced gradually by overcoats in the second half of the Qajar period. Therefore, as Qajar men’s overgarments became shorter – ankle-length gabas became shorter and knee-high sardaris took over – patterns and motifs faded from men’s balapush, which was now limited to a few colors. This developmental trend influenced jobbeh and kolijeh as these ceremonial outerwear and formal winter overgarments were only made with termeh or plain textiles in limited colors. As a result, the diverse range of textiles used in making kolijehs in Fath-Ali Shah’s era were replaced with termeh shawls or even plain neutral-colored textiles. In this manner, expensive silk and zarbaft types of textiles gave way to wool and cotton textiles that were widely used. When gabas were replaced by sardaris, designs, motifs, and even bright colors vanished from Qajar men’s balapush. Furthermore, the fine textiles used in making kolijeh, as a royal garment, were superseded by plain or termeh textiles.