عنوان مقاله [English]
Among the visual signs in epic books that are used in battles and sometimes in mourning ceremonies is the flag. Flag or Alam is one of the signs that can reveal the religious and political thinking of an era. Therefore, by examining the sign in the paintings, the cultural, social, and political contexts of each period are revealed. The signs on the flag and Alam are sometimes symbolic and allegorical and can be a symbol of a family sign and derived from a special traditional and historical thinking. Since flags and Alam are basically the sign of a particular state or people, their presence in the paintings is of particular importance. Therefore, it seems that the motifs and pictures used in Alam and even the smallest details of Alam are not without influence in introducing the identity of that people or nation. Considering the importance of the flag in each period, it seems that the shape and color of the flags used in the Shahnameh of Davari were not without reason, and the examination of these motifs can express their thoughts about a nation or group in the Davari Shahnameh. In the Shahnameh of Davari, most of the flags of this Shahnameh are decorated with lions and suns, as well as the pole or the head of the flags in the pictures of this Shahnameh are sometimes in the form of dragons, birds, cedars, plant, and hand motifs. Meanwhile, the motif that is more interesting than other motifs is the hand or paw motif. Since the flags represent a special group to which this element belongs, and considering that the Shahnameh deals with pre-Islamic narratives, the question is, what is the reason for using the shape of the hand in the pole or the head of the flags? What is the effect of the symbol of the hand in flags and flags on understanding the meaning?
This research is based on the descriptive-analytical nature and is based on the fundamental goal. The analysis of the images is based on the iconological approach. In the Shahnameh of Davari, out of a total of 68 images, 28 images have Alam and flag motifs. In the meantime, in 19 pictures, signs are seen with symbols of handprints, and the analysis has been done on these 19 signs with emphasis on the tops of the Alam. Also, research information has been prepared in a library manner. The findings of the research show that in the illustrated Alam of Davari Shahnameh, which was done by Lotf Ali Shirazi, There are hand marks on most of the Alams or flag ; So according to the time of creation of the work and the discourse of the Qajar period. It seems that the use of hands in these flags and Alam indicates the helping hand of Hazrat Ali (AS) or, according to Drovil, the hand of Hazrat Abbas or Hamsa. If any of the mentioned cases are accepted, it can be said that the use of the hand in the flag or Alam in the Shahnameh of Davari shows the support of Islam for the fighters in the Field. The use of the lion and the sun, which becomes the national emblem, shows the place of the ancient discourse in this period. There fore, it seems that by combining these two roles, Darfashi expresses a Darfashi that shows both the prosperity of ancient Iran and Islam. Anyone who has this door somehow has both Islamic power and Iranian power. Lotf Ali has created a text in which most of his heroes have such characteristics. According to the reviewed texts and the description of the Ghorian war, it seems that this thought was widespread in the Qajar period, consciously or unconsciously. Therefore, the hero and victor of the field in most of the images of Davari Shahnameh is the one who carries a flag in the shape of a "hand". Due to the prevalence of Ta'ziyya in this era, the painter had a Shiite interpretation of the paintings. Even though the story of the Shahnameh is depicted from ancient Iran, it is the presence of the hand that gives the hero extra power.
Therefore, the liberating and helping force for the hero of the narratives is the hand of Hazrat Abbas and an Islamic force. Although archaism is one of the dominant discourses in this era, but the influence of ta'zih and mourning ceremonies has caused this element to be included in pre-Islamic narratives as well. Therefore, the painter introduces someone who is victorious in his paintings, who has the Islamic power more than he has any religious influence. In a way, the painter considers the Islamic force that emphasizes Shiism to be the support of the heroes of the Shahnameh and ancient Iran.