عنوان مقاله [English]
A Trace of power concept has appearance in all Foucault’s thoughts and works. Whether in forms related to shapes in artworks or in relationships between social classes, even in the verbal communications between individuals in a community, which occurs in different way we could see the effects of this theory especially through 20th century thoughts. The discourse of power is the prevailing speech and reading of the era, which the ruling system tries to establish and propagate, which gradually becomes the truth and view accepted by the society, and sometimes it is even recorded in history in this way.
Foucault deals with the self-made term “Heterotopia”, that means elsewhere (other - space) and uses it for analyzing power relationships in the field of guidance of places and to reach interconnected spaces and to expand power more and more. Heterotopias in the form of a psychological perception in such a way that it is perceived as illusory, strange, dreamlike and otherworldly, are manifested in works of art and have induced and imposed their sensory-emotional effects on the audience like the discourse of power. They force and inevitably accept and influence. On the other hand, Achaemenid’s bas-reliefs that have been made by king’s order create different atmosphere, like a picture of truth production and spread power. Hence, the present study aiming to understand more about the impact of prominent roles as agents of power dissemination and the influential phenomena in the socio-political relations of his era. In order to consider this important concept, this question began that how can Achaemenes’s bas-reliefs, be read as a Foucault’s heterotopia? And then by using the documental method for the data were collected by using descriptive – analytical and historical method, it was concluded that these works, given the effective role in shaping the truth and propagating the ruling system in their time. These images could have afforded to make an impressive heterotopia in term of using the features as: level composition, symbolic expression, usage of compound animals, depicting God, showing king as an extra human. As far as we know the meaning of discourse, which in other words is the dominant speech, is a set of positive or negative unwritten rules, that is, it accepts some things and rejects others, and specifies what things can be talked about or not, we could totally comprehend the importance of the Bas- Reliefs for the rulers. Actually, these images functioned as a visual constitution that the common people was bound to understand and implement all those laws by viewing them. As expected from the discourse, there are the actions that shape the subjects that are supposed to speak for themselves. Therefore, discourses can be seen as imposing the type of thinking that this imposition of thinking can actually create reality. Achaemenid thought considered the "king" as a symbol of the nation and civilization, and therefore everything revolved around his character in the art of this era. Achaemenid reliefs are considered as a noble and important art in the ancient times with today's definition and view of art. Therefore, the Achaemenid reliefs were placed like a political propaganda board in the palaces of the kings, temples, tombs and also on the international highways for two purposes, as a religious and ritual art and also for the purpose of telling stories of victories or narrating the bravery and godliness of the king or his position as God's representative on earth. By looking carefully at the Achaemenid decorations, we see the realization of the Achaemenid ideals to create a transcendent and different space from everyday life. Hetropia, which has been realized by creating calculated and regular works. Perhaps it can be said that the use of Sefa to glorify this space and also to maintain parallelism in the composition in order to create balance and order refers us to the other places that have been realized in the reliefs. Therefore, the visual grandeur and mathematical order in Achaemenid works, while giving the works an aesthetic aspect, can be used as a tool to realize the creation of a space different from the surrounding world. These works have special formal and spatial qualities, which can be considered both imaginary and real, which is the principle that Foucault holds for heterotopias. Therefore, the prominent role in producing and stabilizing the discourse approved by the power, as it is considered by the ruling system in order to create the truth created by the era, has played an important role. consequently, these images had the ability to create the heteropiase and heteropiability