نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
استاد گروه مطالعات عالی هنر، دانشکده هنرهای تجسمی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
In Islamic thought and mysticism, there is a perfect relationship between matter and meaning. That is, every material thing has a spiritual form. The basis of this idea is Greek and Plato(Famous Greek philosopher) has spoken about it in his works. But this idea was accepted as a principle by Muslim thinkers. Mir fenderski is one of these thinkers. He sang in a famous poem:" The universe is very beautiful with these stars, What is in the higher world has a form in the material world. If one ascends from earth to heaven with the power of knowledge, He realizes that the material face is the same as his celestial face."
Muslim artists tried to create their works based on this theosophical principle. The materials used by the artists were also of theosophical interest. For example, factors such as color, light, geometry, stone and…..
Color is one of the most important elements in the manifestation of meaning in form, For this reason, it has been discussed in philosophical and theosophical sources, For example in the works of thinkers such as farabi, Avicenna, sheikh Eshrag And mystics whose name I will mention.
So for two reasons, colors and stones have a spiritual and transcendental status in Islamic and Iranian culture. The first reason is the presence of religious verses and hadiths in the Qur'an and Islamic texts and hadiths.
For example, there are verses in the Qur'an about the colors green, yellow and white And also about stones like black stone (حجرالاسود) In Islamic traditions, there are hadiths about sacred stones such as agate and turquoise.
Some verses of the Qur'an in this regard are: 'Call on your Lord, ' they said, 'to make known to us what her color shall be. ' 'Your Lord says: "The cow is yellow, a rich yellow pleasing to the onlookers." ' (Sura 2: AL-BAQARA. 69) In this verse, God refers to the psychological effect of yellow on the spectators.
In another verse, God also considers green the favorite color of the heavenly beings: Upon them there will be garments of green silk, rich brocade, and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver. Their Lord will give them a pure beverage to drink. (Sura 76: AL-INSAN (MAN). 21)
There are also narrations in Islamic hadiths about the sanctity of turquoise color and stone. For example, In one of these narrations, Mufaddal Ibn Umar, who is one of the disciples and relatives of the Imam Reza (the eighth Imam of the Shiites) says: I entered Imam Sadegh while I was holding a turquoise ring. He told me : " O Mufaddal, turquoise is the cause of joy and happiness for the believers, It is repeated and it is added that whoever holds turquoise and pursues something will have his needs met or he gets what he wants."
And the second reason is to pay attention to the spiritual aspects of colors in mystical texts Like the votes of Najm al din Kobra ,Ala Al-Dawlah Semnani, Najm Razi and Khajeh Rashid al-Din Fazlullah and Hafez.
for example see this poem by Hafez ( Mystic and famous Iranian poet( :
"The stone and the clay, the ruby and the cornelian, maketh with auspicious glance, Whoever the value of the breath of the breeze of Yaman knew."or this important point that Najmuddin Kobra mentions in his important works, Fawaih al-Jamal and Fawatih al-Jalal: From now on, the heavenly truths will be shown to the mystic with colors.
Also, an important and significant discussion that Alaa al-Dawla Semnani has brought in some of his works. He speaks of a system of seven colors in this works. Ala al-Dawlah Semnani uses colors to explain the stages of the mystic's ascent to the spiritual worlds and attributes each stage to a prophet. Like the colors green, yellow, black and white This theory seems to have had an important impact on Islamic art and architecture. Important research has been conducted in the Islamic world that shows that artists and architects have paid attention to mystical theories
The relationship between spirituality and color in Islamic civilization is due to the principle of correspondence in Islamic thought. This principle implies that every object in this world has the form and Ideas of a transcendent world. Therefore, color and stone also represent a spiritual matter. This is especially true for some colors and stones.
This article has researched about stone and turquoise color in Islamic and Iranian civilization. This color will be researched in religious, historical, artistic and architectural texts. In particular, the dome of Soltanieh will be discussed as one of the most important Iranian buildings. And the relationship of this building, especially its turquoise dome with religious and historical texts will be discussed.