عنوان مقاله [English]
Lacquer painting was used to decorate the book covers since the late Timurid period. This art became more prevalent in the Safavid and Zand eras, and reached its peak in the Qajar era. In this manner, Painting was done on objects of pulp (cover, pen box, mirror frame).After painting, the artist covers surface of the work with lacquer. Using this material, the painting colors remained between the layers of oil lacquer, so that the colors become more beautiful over time. The laquer material protected paintings from biological damage, pale coloration and maturation over time. Since Golestan Museum has a rich collection of lacquer works, and these works are one of the most valuable ones of their time, they have various technical and visual characteristics. This study aimed to determine an organization and set for these characteristics, so that it can indicate lacquer painting methods of the Qajar era. Moreover, it was tried to answer these questions: What are the technical and visual characteristics of lacquer works in Golestan Museum? Is it possible to indicate a collection of characteristics of the Qajar lacquer works based on the available works in Golestan Museum? This study used a descriptive-analytical methodology and library data to collect data. Therefore, observation and investigation of the lacquer works were the main incentives of the study. Statistical population under study was all the 39 works in Golestan museum, which were examined by descriptive-analytical approach. The most important results to be mentioned are presented here. Lacquer works of Golestan Palace were mostly made as ornamental .Lacquer painting of the Qajar era flourished well in the second half of the 13th century, and the main patterns used in the works were illumination, Gol o Morgh, landscaping, sculpture, and hunting. Lacquer painting can be divided into two groups in the area of illustration of the human body. In the first period from the beginning of the Qajar dynasty to the early days of the reign of Naser-al-Din Shah, images were designed based on the style of traditional Iranian painting aesthetics accompanied by brief effects of the European painting. The effects of photographic camera and the European realistic style were clearly observed in the works of the next period from the early days of the reign of Naser-al-Din Shah Qajar. Most of the animal’s pattern on the works was related to the bird’s images, and the most important plant patterns were devoted to the flowers’ images. There were some European painting effects in terms of subjects, painting style and composition in most of the works. Landscaping images have been designed to create perspective and background elements smaller than the sculpture. In some of Lacquer’s works, the writings have been used in conjunction with the images, in terms of their composition in harmony with the painting. Most of the writing was don with Nastaliq’s line and for reference. Illustration of man, especially the king, was quite important, and greatness and power of the Qajar court was the main aim of the representation of images.