نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشیار، گروه صنایع دستی و هنرهای اسلامی دانشگاه سوره
2 کارشناس ارشد، صنایع دستى، دانشکده هنر دانشگاه سوره، تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
< p >Tymurid era is one of the most outstanding illumination and miniature painting eras, which has allocated the decoration of the most of the Iranian precious facsimiles, which exist in museums and Baysonqori Shahnameh is the most beautiful facsimile of them.The historical literary importance and aesthetics of this precious facsimile caused to be noticed by inquisitors. In different eras the Shahnames especially Baysonqori Shahnameh were tended in regard to patterns. In addition to 22 beautiful illustrations, this facsimile possesses so beautiful decorations and page layout manner, which are incomparable in its kind. Because of the importance page layout in illumination and signboard (sarloh) affair in this era the harmonization and balance between the colors have been noticed and caused this facsimile to be so brilliant. Nevertheless it has less stood in structural discussion and investigation in the field of illumination and it hasn’t been pointed in specialized manner and sometimes just next to its illustrations almost a passing and descriptive look has been done on its illuminations and a comprehensive analyzation hasn’t been done on it. Therefore, this article basically aims the presentation of the structural features of Harat school’s illumination (in Baysonqori and Tymurid era).The nature of this investigation is descriptive and analytic and the required information has been collected in documentary manner and in some cases it depends on field manner, direct observation and interview with art masters and artists. Finally the analysis of the data has been done on the form, color, composition and general structure of the illuminations of Baysonqori Shahnameh version and the obtained results of this research showed that the illumination of Harat school are more geometrical which forms beautiful nodes from the grips of these drawings in each other. We can see this form in the most of Tymurid era’s facsimiles.The outstanding colors in this literary work are most gold and ultramarine, the other colors next these two colors, such as shangarf, green, orange and white outstand clearly especially green which is holly for ancient Iranians. Generally, in Tymurid era’s illuminations, the field of margin is monochrome and the arabesque and Cathay are in two separate fields, and the importance of arabesque and the pale Cathay design in it is completely obvious.The tables of these pages are so simple and monochrome, in some cases they have been decorated in Tymurid’s style with two colors and simple drawings “beside dots”.Applying seven multiple in the composition of the beginning ornamental fastening such as a seven-petal flower in the middle and seven little circles around it, the number of flower, arabesques and sharafehs are the other outstanding specifications of this Shahnameh.All of these are the multiple pf seven because seven is holy for ancient Iranians (e.g. seven cities of love, seven skies, seven books of Shahnameh …). With all of these specifications, this facsimile can be a pattern due to preservation of the art of illumination and creation of precious facsimiles because of its text, variety in page layout and its valuable illustrations.