نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
دانشجوى دکترى تاریخ تطبیقى و تحلیلى هنر اسلامى، دانشگاه تهران، پردیس هنرهاى زیبا
عنوان مقاله [English]
The script and writing have been among the necessities of daily religious and social life of Muslims and in many verses of the Quran has been explicitly emphasized on them. The Prophet, Muhammad, following the Divine command and understanding the importance of the subject, appointed some people to teach and practice writing and of necessity, self-guided them in understanding the theological virtue, or even the way they took over. Ali, Prophet’s son in law, and a group of trusty companions of Prophet began to write the words of revelation. It is clear that these practitioners have sometimes described some tips about their work. These sayings were gathered in books of Hadith collection by theologians and traditionalists (Muhaddith) and when the work of scribes flourished in the government affairs and among the people of knowledge, and calligraphy techniques emerged, they became popular among calligrapher, especially in Calligraphy Training, and were spread everywhere in the Islamic world until reached to the Iranian calligraphers. In this land, the origin of competent scribes at least from the fourth / tenth century, was established a coherent system of training the artists and artisans from the mid-seventh / thirteenth century and in calligraphy, that was widely used everywhere and every time, was compiled educational treatises and later biographies of calligraphers that have yet been the reference for scholars until now. All the texts related to calligraphy are begun with mentioning some of the sayings of the infallible wisdom and the words of celebrities or aphorisms common among experts and have been narrated from generation to generation. These traditions and sayings still recount, more or less, between calligraphers and sometimes even invoked is written, but apparently no one right or wrong assignment of the speakers, whether or not their infallible, pondered and documented in this study have not been done. The necessary of the attention when became more that know the same words have attributed at different times to different people, while in the original sources have been narrated different narrative of them. After a glance at the formation and spread of writing in the early Islamic period and the entre of religious leaders in this field, in this article has been tried to evaluate the authenticity of the traditions in these treaties through studying the aphorisms and sayings in Persian calligraphy treatises, and referring to reliable sources of Shi’a hadith, and, if possible, extracted the original traditions or samples of them from the original sources and compare them with calligraphers sayings; then has adapted some scattered remarks attributed to scholars in various treatises. It should be noted that advanced search supplier for author to search in Hadith texts has not been the original resources, but has been the software of Jami al-Ahadith produced by Computer Research Center of Islamic Sciences. Also, the base source for study the narratives of calligraphers has been the treatise of Abdallah Sayrafi’s Adab al-Khat, and, because of it is the oldest and most complete treatise on calligraphy, the narratives of other treatises adapted whit it.