عنوان مقاله [English]
The art of modern sculpting in Iran has a close and inseparable relationship with the activities of Society for the Appreciation of National Cultural Works. This society, which was founded in 1925, has made significant efforts in supporting artis ts to design and fashion the sculptures of the dis tinguished cultural figures of Iran, domes tication of this modern art in Iran, and documentation of the visage of these figures. By designing sculptures of the cultural figures and erecting them in public squares, Society was of the firs t ins titutions that took sculptures to the city, put them on display, and made this art popular. This Society uses a variety of means to reach its goals in making symbols and propagation of sculpture making. By an approach based on national identity, the Society chose some perennial figures of the his tory and culture of Iran who have been favored by Iranians during different his torical periods. Although some literary and political figures chosen by Society, such as Ferdowsi, Ya’qub Layth Saffar, and Nader Shah, had some relations to the nationalis tic ideology of Pahlavi monarchy, these figures have also been favored by Iranians of different periods in time. The sculptures made under the sponsorship of the Society were symbols of the latent nationalism that is present in the modern thought. The display of these sculptures in public places resulted in the gradual erosion of the taboo of sculpting in the common culture that was the result of certain religious sensitivities. This part of the activities of the Society was aimed at both the masses and the elites. Society made some effective efforts for making symbols out of national, political, and scientific figures and tried for s tandardization of the their sculptures through creating regulations, defining special frameworks, domes tication of sculpturing, and building workshops of bronze sculpture-making in Iran. Some of these efforts were successful, but efforts in building workshops remained unsuccessful. Society was also monitoring other artis ts, organizations, and societies to make sure of their following s tandards of sculpturing, and believed erecting sculptures in public places mus t be under the supervision of Culture and Art Minis try. This article attempts to answer the main ques tion about the part played by Society in the popularization and spreading of the art of sculpting. Using descriptive and analytical methods and availing itself of documentary records, especially the documents of s tagnant archive of Society for the Appreciation of Cultural Works and Dignities, this article addresses this ques tion. Findings of this research show that, with targeted planning and the collaboration of able sculptors, Society was largely successful in this important task. Among the sculpture artis ts collaborating Society the role of Aboulhassan Sedighi with making twenty sculptures ordered by society, is outs tanding. He collaborated with Society and by drawing and painting of visages of the eminent figures had the greates t impact on documentation of these visages and popularization of this art. Today we know the visage of these figures through his drawings and sculptures. He also made efforts in making workshops for building bronze sculptures.