نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوى دکترى، تاریخ ایران بعد از اسلام، دانشگاه خوارزمى، تهران، ایران
2 دانشیار تاریخ، تاریخ ایران بعد از اسلام، دانشگاه خوارزمى، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The Timurid period is a golden age in the popularity and evolution of Iranian calligraphy. During this period, with the invention and spread of Nastaliq, calligraphers emerged. Calligraphers as one of the most important groups have interacted with other social classes in their time. The main issue of this article is to examine the quality and manner of relations between scholars and calligraphers in the Timurid period. The researcher's hypothesis in this research was that in this period, due to the Timurid support for the art of calligraphy, art was also considered by the educated in the society and since calligraphers wrote religious texts, it seemed that the relationship between calligraphers and scholars This course is interactive. The method of conducting descriptive-analytical research and data collection was done by referring to library resources and documents. After reviewing and analyzing the data, the hypothesis was proved. The results of this study showed that in the Timurid era, Shiite scholars and calligraphers interacted with each other cultural and social activities in such a way that the importance and virtue of calligraphy among scholars and calligraphers' attention to mystical religious sciences on the other hand, established a strong bond between them.
The art of calligraphy has two notable features: first, it made a living through this art and they worked in government courts and courts of law and copying and writing. In fact, they were responsible for the transfer of science and knowledge. On the other hand, if some calligraphers turned to this art with a heartfelt interest and were less interested in material interests, they would have paid more attention to the criteria of art and beauty. This group of calligraphers usually had students who tried to promote this art by educating and training younger calligraphers. They were mostly considered by scholars, princes and elders, and in fact the calligraphy and its evolution and validity were done by these people.
The Timurid period is an era in which, despite the turmoil, the existing socio-cultural and political problems of its early formation are known as the Renaissance and flourishing. In a nutshell, political stability is the economic boom of religious freedom and respect for religion and their leaders. The Timurid era is an influential factor in the flourishing of the art of this period. Different cultural groups have always had close relations in the Timurid era, but in this period, the level of communication between scholars and calligraphers is more visible than before. During this period, due to the emergence and spread of Sufi and Shiite sects of the religion and due to the deep connection between the art of calligraphy and the religion of Islam, calligraphers of the Timurid period had Shiite and Sufi tendencies. During this period, scholars were considered serious calligraphers, and sometimes even some of them, in addition to mastering religious or intellectual sciences, learned the art of calligraphy in order to have a better social status in society.