عنوان مقاله [English]
Timurid era is one of the well-known time of artis tic and artichetural developments in the his tory of Persian arts from the point of form and content. His torians believe that the prosperity of the arts and architecture originate with the special procedure of Timur and his successors to patronage of Persian artis ts and architect. Hirat and Shiraz through Timurid era were the main centers of the art of Book that thrived under patronage of the Timurid princes Baysunghur (d. 837AH / 1434 AD) and Ibrahim Sultan (d. 837 AH / 1434 AD). Although the two scriptoriums of Hirat and Shiraz liased, there were different s tyle in the art of book. Although illus tration of the poetic books has been s tudies extensively for the form, content, as tis ts and schools, the other diciplines of the arts of book among them paper-making, illumination, and book-bonding have not been well s tudied. The main purpose of the article is a comparison s tudy on two significant Qur`an manuscripts in order to determine the main features of Illumination in the two centers of book-making. Two significant Qur`ans copied in Shiraz and Herat held by As tan Quds Radawi selected as indicators of Illumination S tyle: firs t one is a selected suras of Qur`an copied in Shiraz by Ibrahim Sultan in 827 AH/1424 AD. The Qur`an endowed to Imam Riza Shrine by Ibrahim Sultan. The second one is the Qur`an copied by Abdallah Tabbakh Hiravi, the well-known calligrapher of timurid era in 845 AH/ 1441 AD. He copied the Qur`an for the library of Alaʿal-Dawla ibn Baysunghur in Hirat. In this descriptive article the main variant of illumination including motives, colors, and composition of elements in the beginning pages and other elements among them sura-headings, verse dividers, and verse conters compared and analysied. The ques tions of the s tudy are: What are the features of motives, colors, and composition of illumination in the Qur`an of Ibrahim Sultan and Abd allah Tabbakh?
What are the differnces and resembalances of motives, colors, and composition in illumination of the Qur`an of Ibrahim Sultan and Abd allah Tabbakh?The conclusion shows that in the beginning pages (safahāti iftitāh) of Ibrahim Sultan`s Qur`an Khatā`ī is the main motif and Islimi is used in sura-headings and lawhs. Additionally, the form of khata`i is compeletly different from Hirat s tyle. The s tyle with the very fine pedicals and leafs backed to the illuminations of Qur`ans copied after 772 AH/ 1372 AD under patronage of Muzaffarids in Shiraz. Khata`i and Islimi have used in equally in Abd-allāh Tabbākh`s Qur`an. The s tyle used in the form of leafs is different as well. Colored flowers between khata-is is another feature of Hirat s tyle. Although, number and type of colors used in the both manuscripts is similar, surface level assigned to each color is different particularly in the use of azura and ochre. In Ibrahim Sultan Qur`an surfave level assigned to azura is much more than Abdallah Tabbbakh Qur`an since the background of mos t elements of illumination, particularly in the beginning pages (Safahāti iftitāh), is painted with azura. While the background of margins and sura-headings in Abdallah Tabbakh`s Qur`an is dedicated to ochre. In composition of the pages, in particular the beginning pages, both illuminitors palces emphasis on the 3 elememts of matn (the surface assigned to the text), lowh (the horizontal shape contained a cartouch and motive) and kamand (the three-sided margin which surrounding all the elemets of the page). But the illuminator of the Abdallah Tabbakh`s Qur`an used multiple margins intermediate text and kamand.