تحلیل آیکونوگرافیک طرح واگیره‌ای قالی در نگاره رستم خان زند

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه فرش، دانشکده هنرهای کاربردی، دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران.

10.22034/ra.2022.538082.1098

چکیده

آیکونوگرافی طرح واگیره‌ای قالی در نگاره رستم خان زند، مسأله اصلی مقاله پیش‌رو است. نگاره رستم خان زند با دربرداشتن دو شاخصه؛ درباری بودن و درج امضاء نقاش سند تصویری اصیلی از دوره زندیه (1209-1163 هجری) است لذا تمامی عناصر نگاره را می‌توان از الگوهای رایج آن دوره تاریخی لحاظ نمود. مقاله در پی پاسخ به این پرسش‌ است که مطالعه آیکونوگرافیک، چگونه موجب تحلیل طرح قالی موجود در تصویر خواهد شد؟ به نظر می‌رسد علاوه بر تحلیل یکی از طرح‌های رایج قالی زندیه، آیکونوگرافی طرح قالی مذکور، مفاهیم و الگوهای فکری دوره زندیه را به نمایش می‌گذارد. فرضیه این است که نقاش در نگاره مورد پژوهش هرچه به طور واقع در پیرامون وجود داشته به تصویر درآورده؛ اما از سویی دیگر با مفروض دانستن امکان اعمال سلیقه رستم‌خان این پرسش طرح می‌شود که در انتخاب برخی عناصر بصری مانند نقوش قالی در تصویر و گزینش طرح واگیره‌ای اسلیمی برخاسته از سلیقه شاهزاده بوده یا در اندیشه نقاش چه اندازه متصور شده است؟ نقاشِ نگاره آقا صادق دوم است و در سایر آثار ایشان نیز قالی‌هایی با طرح قاب اسلیمی دیده می‌شود. ذوق هنری نقاش و سنت نقش‎اندازی زمانه نسبت به اعمال سلیقه شاهزاده زندی تأثیر بیشتری داشته است. باتوجه‌به رویکرد کیفی پژوهش، روش تحقیق به‌صورت توصیفی و تحلیلی و گردآوری اطلاعات در آن با استفاده از منابع کتابخانه‌ای انجام شده است. همچنین تحلیل‌ها با اتکا بر رویکرد آیکونوگرافی انجام شده است. نتیجه تحقیق نشان داد به سبب موضوع نگاره و امضاء آقاصادق، قاب اسلیمی واگیره‌ای از طرح‌های مرسوم قالی دوره زندیه بوده است. با وجود حاکمیت فضای مثالی هنر ایرانی بر تابلو، یکایک عناصر بصری وحدت رویه داشته و سنت باستان گرایی قابل درک است. انتخاب نوع قالی نیز متأثر از محتوا بوده و با فرم کلی نگاره دارای وحدت است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Iconographic analysis of Rug contaminated designs in the Rustam Khan Zand painting

نویسنده [English]

  • samaneh kakavand
Assistant Professor, Department of Carpet, Faculty of Applied Arts, University of Art, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study examined the iconography of the  “vagirei” carpet pattern in the Rustam Khan Zand painting, which is an original visual document from the Zand period in Iran (1163–1209 AH  /  1751–1794 AD) as it is a court painting and signed by its painter. This allows studying all of the elements of the miniature in the light of the common patterns of its historical period. The main questions of this study were posed as follows: Could the patterns on the carpet be studied contextually? How could iconographic study lead to the analysis of the carpet pattern in the painting? It seems that in addition to discovering the analysis of one of the common carpet patterns of the Zand era, the iconography of its pattern can reveal the intellectual concepts and patterns of the Zand period. The hypothesis was that the painter of the miniature has painted everything that was in the surroundings realistically. However, on the presumption that Rustam Khan may have exerted his personal taste, the question arises whether selecting some of the visual elements such as the motifs in the patterns of the carpet and choosing arabesque vagirei pattern were rooted in the prince’s taste or to what degree they have been pictured in the painter’s mind? The painter of the work is Muhammad Sadiq and carpets with arabesque frame pattern can be found in his other works. The artistic virtuosity of the painter and the painting tradition of the time had more influence compared with the Zand prince’s exertion of personal taste. This qualitative study was descriptive-analytical and the data were collected by library research with indexing and recording observations. Moreover, the analysis was based on iconography theories. The results of the study showed that arabesque vagirei frame was one of the common carpet patterns in the Zand period in Iran given the subject of the miniature and Muhammad Sadiq’s signature. Despite the dominance of an exemplary atmosphere of Persian art in the painting, each one of the visual elements follows uniform practice and the tradition of Archaism can be perceived. The selection of this type of carpet was influenced by the content and is unified with the overall form of the miniature.The analyzes are also based on the iconographic theory of Ervin Panofsky. The carpet has two inner and outer edges. The inner edge consists of Islamic twist and the outer edge is one of the most common margins of Zand era carpet, the edge of the entrance. The search for the role of interventions in other works of the Zandieh period showed its widespread use. For example, in the brick decorations of Karim Khani citadel and limestone of Vakil bath, the role of intervention is also seen. Finally, recognizing Islamic contagions as one of the recurring flaws in Zandieh era rugs is important and indicates that contagious rugs, like other visual elements, have been the image of the prosperous designs of Zandieh era.
Despite the reputation of Iranian carpets, little scientific research has been done in the field of weaving and many questions remain unanswered. In some periods the problem becomes more complicated with the lack of historical sources. Zandieh carpet is an example of such a claim. The problem is so complicated that many years ago it was believed that there was no carpet from the Zandi period. The paintings solve the problem to some extent and the design of the carpets in the paintings as visual sources helps to recognize the acceptable and common designs of that period. Carpet designs and designs, despite repetition in each period of evolution, have had an innovative and unique style. The article seeks to answer the question of how the study of iconography, how to analyze the design of the carpet in the image? It seems that in addition to analyzing one of the common designs of Zandieh carpets, the iconography of the mentioned carpet design shows the concepts and thought patterns of Zandieh period. The hypothesis is that the painter depicted everything that actually existed around him in the painting in question; But on the other hand, assuming the possibility of applying Rostamkhan’s taste, the question arises that in choosing some visual elements such as carpet designs in the image and choosing the design of Islamic contagious designs arising from the prince’s taste or how much is imagined in the painter’s mind? The painter is Agha Sadegh II, and in his other works, carpets with Islamic frames can be seen. The artistic taste of the painter and the tradition of embossing the time have been more influential than the tastes of Prince Zandi. Due to the qualitative approach of the research, the research method is descriptive and analytical and information is collected using library resources. Analyzes have also been performed based on the iconographic approach. The result of the research showed that due to the subject of Aqasadegh’s drawing and signature, the Islamic frame was a catchy one of the conventional designs of Zandieh period carpets. Despite the dominance of the exemplary atmosphere of Iranian art on the painting, each of the visual elements has a unity of procedure and the tradition of archeology is understandable. The choice of the type of carpet is also influenced by the content and has unity with the general form of the image.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iconography
  • Zand Rug
  • contagious design
  • Islamic frame
  • Rostam Khan Zand
دوره 5، شماره 1
اردیبهشت 1401
صفحه 61-71
  • تاریخ دریافت: 11 شهریور 1400
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 0-727 فروردین 2
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 29 دی 1400
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 01 اردیبهشت 1401