نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 عضو هیأت علمی گروه ارتباط تصویری، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران.
2 استاد گروه مطالعات عالی هنر، دانشکده هنرهای تجسمی، دانشکدگان هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
3 دانشیار گروه زبان و ادبیات فرانسه، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
For the first time, “Yahya Zoka” in a research in 1964, has used the term “Shamayel-Khaneh” (house of icons) of Nasser al-Din Shah. The main question in the present study has been whether the term Shamayel-Khaneh was actually used in the Nasserite period. The sub-questions have been about quiddity of the Shamayel-Khaneh, its properties and related matters. These questions led to discovery of the “Royal Jewelry Document Booklet” at Documentation Center of the “Malek National Library and Museum Institution”, with registration number 6164. This booklet has written in Nasta’liq and Siagh script on European paper and has consisted of 66 sheets in the dimensions of 25/8×16/8 cm, which was written in 1291 AH and some items were added to it until 1317 AH; and therefore, it has belonged to the period of Nasser al-Din Shah and Muzaffar al-Din Shah Qajar. This booklet has related to the documents of Shamayel-Khaneh, books, Qur’an and Bayaz from the calligraphy of Imams (a.s.) etc. along with gold and jewelry in the treasury and court, and has contained the documents of five icons of Imam Ali (a.s.) under the Shamayel-Khaneh. The most important goal, then, has been to find the icons that have documented in the booklet and to reconstruct part of the Shamayel-Khaneh. Therefore, it has tried to explore the icons of the booklet among the icons of the Nasserite period, with the inductive method by comparing the document with other documents, texts, photographs, paintings and icons of the Qajar period, and using the three processes of description, evaluation and analysis. The findings show that the Shamayel-Khaneh has been one of the royal houses and has contained icons of Imam Ali (a.s.) that provided the icons needed for court houses and ceremonies and five icons of it have been part of the royal jewelry. Of these, three were made by Muslims and probably two by Christians or in close association with Christians. These icons have been the most important icons of the Qajar period and the Nasserite court, because they have been part of the royal jewelry of the treasury. The placement of the five icons of Imam Ali (a.s.) at the beginning of the “Royal Jewelry Document Booklet”, before the document of the Qur’an, the Turbah Karbala and other gold and jewelries, etc., as well as the employment of a person in the task of protecting the icons, has shown the position of these icons of Shamayel-Khaneh in the Nasseri court.
The first document is about a medal which is oval shaped, silver, decorated with diamonds and contains a large piece of diamond, and a portrait of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) is illustrated in it. This portrait is probably the work of Abulhassan Naghash-bashi and is drawn by him on the order of the king from the icon of the treasury of the previous kings in treasury of Nasserite court, and it was hung on the body of the king for the first time on Wednesday, the 27th of Rabi al-Awwal, 1273 A.H. (1856), during a magnificent ceremony. This medal is mounted on Nasser al-Din Shah’s neck and chest in one photo and three paintings but its current fates is unknown.
The second document refers to placing of a photo of an icon of sitting figure of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) under a smooth cut glass, which is made of high quality stone and has a gold frame decorated with diamonds, octagonal cut and crowned head. This icon is probably painted by a Christian painter and is now kept in the treasury of the “National Jewelry Museum”.
The third document is related to a watercolor icon of sitting figure of Hazrat Ali (a.s.), which is placed in a gold frame and decorated with jewels such as rubies, emeralds, diamonds, garnet, and turquoise. This icon is the work of Agha-Hassan and is now kept in the treasury of “Golestan Palace”.
The fourth document is related to an icon of sitting figure of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) with Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain (a.s.), Salman Farsi and Abu Dharr Ghifari. This black pen icon is installed on a framed canvas and its dimensions were 94.25 × 110.5 cm. According to the document, there is gilding or water gilding on the frame. This icon is the work of Ismail Jalayer and was installed in the funeral ceremony of Nasser al-Din Shah in the Takyeh Dowlat but its current fates is unknown.
The fifth document is related to an oil color, undated, unframed, but with framework icon of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) on canvas. This icon is installed in the Takyeh Dowlat during Muharram and Safar ceremonies and is kept in the treasury of the “Astan Quds Razavi Museum” now.