تأثیر الگوهای بازشناسی اشیاء در فرآیند ادراک بصری بر روی طراحی انسان محور (از منظر روان‌شناسی شناختی)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد ارتباط تصویری، گروه گرافیک (ارتباط تصویری)، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه سوره، تهران، ایران، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه هنر و معماری، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

مسئلة اصلی پژوهش حاضر این است که حقایق و روابط الگوهای بازشناسی اشیاء را که در فرایند بنیادین برای درک بصری نقش ایفا می‌کنند جست‌وجو نماید و این الگوها را در منابع متفاوت علوم شناختی، به صورت خاص روان‌شناسی شناختی، بررسی کند. از همین رو مقالة حاضر سعی دارد تا بفهمد آیا این روابط تأثیری در طراحی انسان‌محور دارد؟ و اگر تأثیری دارد چه دستاوردی می‌تواند در این حوزه برای طراحان داشته باشد؟ این پژوهش به صورت توصیفی-تحلیلی انجام شده است و از نظر روش، کیفی است. پژوهش، با استناد به نظریات مطرح شده در حوزة روان‌شانسی شناخت تلاش می‌کند تأثیر شناخت ادراک بصری بر طراحی انسان‌محور را جستجو نماید. این پژوهش بر اساس مطالعات ضمنی و بر پایة مستندات و نظریات متفاوت در حوزة روان‌شناسی شناخت، ده پیشنهاد نهایی را برای طراحان ارائه می‌دهد تا طراحان بتوانند بیش ازپیش طراحی خود را متناسب با توانایی‌های شناختی انسان انجام دهند. این ده پیشنهاد اثبات کننده‌ی دو مطلب اساسی است. اول آنکه نشان می‌دهد، دانش علوم شناختی می‌تواند به طراحان کمک کند تا طراحی خود را متناسب با محدودیت‌های ذهنی انسان انجام دهند. دوم، می‌توان از این نظریات دستاوردهایی استخراج کرد که با توجه به این دستاوردها به قوانینی کلی برای طراحی رسید. در نهایت این پژوهش به این می‌پردازد که شناخت الگوهای بازشناسی و در نظر گرفتن آن در طراحی، باعث ایجاد یکپارچگی بیشتر در ادراک طرح، درک سریع تر کاربر از روابط بصری و در نظرگرفتن ساختار کلی برای ایجاد تمایز بین شکل‌ها می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Pattern Recognition in the Visual Perception Process on the Human-Centered Design from the Perspective of Cognitive Psychology

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Mohamad Mahdi Gerami 1
  • behnam zangi 2
1 Master of Video Communication, Department of Graphic (Video Communication), Faculty of Art,Soore University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistance Professor, Dpartment of Art and Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In the current digital world, as a result of the fact that the designers create the new virtual world off the ground, identifying the human requirements and confinements is more important and required than ever for correct design. The designer needs to pay attention to human needs so as that relate humans with today’s digital machines in a good manner. One of the most significant human limitations that should be considered while designing is the limitations of the human brain. The fact that how much the designation is proportional to the human brain is of high importance. One of the most important characteristics of the brain for visual understanding of identifying objects is the ability to recognize the pattern. The stage after the vision is understanding what has been seen and after that saving it as an identifying point so that it would be possible to recognize what the eyes have seen and the brain has understood. Recognition includes patterns that teach us how to understand a variety of messages such as familiar visual messages, dangers, categories, differences, and many concepts and forms in our surroundings. The main issue of the present investigation is to study the facts and relations of the object recognition patterns that play a role in the fundamental process of visual understanding and analyze these patterns in different resources of the cognitive sciences, particularly cognitive psychology. So that the way of interaction in the brain will be analyzed through this perspective and the resulted relations can be used for a more humanistic design. Therefore, this paper is trying to first, realize what is the recognition process and at which stage it happens and following this to answer the question of whether these relations have any impact on the humanistic design and if there’s any connection among these two? And if the recognition patterns impact the designation, what are the achievements that can be reached for the designers in this arena? This investigation is being done through data collection from library resources and in form of a case study, and it tries to clarify the impact of visual understanding on the humanistic designation by citing the argued views in the field of cognitive psychology. Regarding the fact that the objects around us are comprehended by the brain, it’s of high importance to study how visual comprehension works and its impact on the designation. Recently, neuroscience has been improved significantly in identifying the abilities of the brain and creating brain measuring tools and these improvements have helped the cognitive sciences and consequently cognitive sciences.
The association between design and cognition is one of the major subjects in the recent investigations which has been a field of interest for the investigators in this field. In this regard, the most important views in the field of recognition patterns have been examined and the result has been extracted as far as possible. Particularly, one of the most important views that have been argued the most, is the component integrity theory. This investigation is based on the implicit studies and various documents in the field of cognitive psychology, it offers 10 final recommendations for the designers so that they’ll be able to have a design more proportionate to the human cognitive abilities. These 10 recommendations are general statements and each of them is trying to guide the cognitive designers not accurately and specifically but generally.
These ten propositions prove two basic things. First, it shows that the knowledge of cognitive science can help designers to make their design according to human mental limitations. Second, it is possible to extract some achievements from these theories which lead to general rules for a human-centered visual design according to these achievements. Finally, this research deals with the fact that knowing the pattern recognition and considering them in the design creates more integration in the perception of the design, faster understanding of the visual relationships by the user, and considering the overall structure to differentiate between the shapes. This research indicates that visual noise should be avoided in design and visual signals of the target should be placed in front of the eyes of the design audience as much as possible. Wrong or ineffective signals make the reading of the design more intricate and increase the cognitive load. On the other hand, the model of cognitive devils presents us, what are the stages of perception from this theory, which part of the image is understood earlier and easier than the others, and basically what are the stages of visual perception. In line with what was stated, the research deals with how visual search is done and how to reduce the visual search time for the user so that the user can understand the design as quickly and simply as possible.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Visual Perception
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Human-Centered Design
  • Pattern Recognition
  • Cognitive Design
  • User Interface Design