تزیینات هندسی در آرایه‌های معماری مسجد جامع ورامین

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه صنایع دستی، دانشکده صنایع دستی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد صنایع دستی، گروه صنایع دستی، دانشکده صنایع دستی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

چکیده

مسجد جامع ورامین، یکی از بناهای برجای مانده از دوره ایلخانی است که به واسطه معماری و تزیینات خود، اهمیتی جهانی دارد و برخی محققان آن را از جمله کامل‌ترین نمونه های معماری مساجد سنتی در ایران قلمداد کرده اند. در این بنا، گچ‌بری‌ها و کاشی کاری‌ها وسعت زیادی از تزیینات را به خود اختصاص داده است و تزیینات هندسی، سهم بسیار مهمی را در در آرایه‌های این بنا برعهده دارد. این تزیینات دارای ویژگی‌های هنری ارزشمندی است که کم تر معرفی و بدان پرداخته شده است؛ لذا هدف این مقاله علاوه بر مستندنگاری نقوش، معرفی و بررسی انواع تزیینات هندسی موجود در آرایه‌های معماری مسجد جامع ورامین است که برای دستیابی به این هدف، از روش توصیفی-   تحلیلی، بر پایه پژوهشی میدانی و  منابع مکتوب؛ استفاده شده است. نتایج مطالعات حاکی از آن است که  بیشترین تزیینات هندسی موجود؛ در نمای شمالی (سردر) و جنوبی (ایوان و گنبدخانه) مسجد جامع ورامین متمرکز بوده که با تکنیک آجر و کاشی؛ کاشی معرق و گچ‌بری اجرا شده است. هم چنین گره‌ها در بخش های شاخص هر فضا و در سطوح گسترده مشاهده می‌شود و بیشتر شامل انواع گره ‌هایی است که در آنها از شمسه‌های شش، هشت و دوازده پر استفاده شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geometric Decorations in the Architectural Ornaments of the Great Mosque of Varamin

نویسندگان [English]

  • bahareh taghavinejad 1
  • sedigheh mirsalehian 2
1 Assistance Professor, Dpartment of Handicrafts, faculty of Handicrafts, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
2 Master of Handicrafts, Dpartment of Handicrafts, faculty of Handicrafts, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Varamin, the capital of Varamin County, is located 35 km southeast of Tehran province. This city has many ancient and historical monuments and religious places, each of which is of great importance. This city was at the peak of its prosperity during the Ilkhanid period, during which significant historical buildings such as Ala-Doleh Tower, Imamzadeh Yahya Mausoleum, and Prince Hossein Mausoleum were built in this city. The great mosque of Varamin is also one of the most important buildings remaining from the Ilkhanate period, the construction of which began during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Khodabande and was completed during the reign of his son and successor, Sultan Abu Saeed Bahadur Khan, in 722 AH, although the inscription above the head of the door and the inscription under the dome show the year 726 AH. This building, which is registered as number 176 in the list of national monuments, is of global importance due to its architecture and decorations, and some researchers consider it one of the most complete architectural examples of traditional mosques in Iran. In the Great Mosque of Varamin, the architectural ornaments are implemented in the most beautiful way possible and it displays a unique example of the art of the 8th century of Hijri. Plastering and tiling occupy a large area of these ornaments and play a very important role in decorating the interior and exterior spaces of this building. In addition to the use of various execution techniques, the existing designs have a lot of visual capabilities and variety, which include plant, geometric, and inscriptions, which together create a beautiful and harmonious collection of designs and calligraphy. In the meantime, geometric motifs have a privileged position and can be seen to a large extent in the decorations of this mosque. These decorations have valuable artistic features that are less introduced and noticed; for this reason, the main goal of this research is to introduce the geometric decorations of the Great Mosque of Varamin and to take a detailed look at these decorations, to get to know more about the motifs and preserve and revive them. In this regard, the main question of this research is: What are the most significant motifs and geometric decorations in the architectural ornaments of the Great Mosque of Varamin? To achieve the goal of this research, a descriptive-analytical method has been used, based on field research and the study of written sources. The results of the studies show that most of the geometric decorations are concentrated in the north (frontispiece) and south (Ivan and dome chamber) facades of the Great Mosque of Varamin, which are executed with brick and tile, mosaic tile, and plastering techniques. In addition, in the main parts of each space and on wide surfaces, nodes are observed in which “six, eight, and twelve feathered wheels” are used. In many examples, these geometric decorations are combined with plant motifs or inscriptions, and this variety of motifs, which is sometimes accompanied by technical variety (brick and tile, brick and plaster), has given a beautiful effect to this building. In general, we can say that the architectural decorations of Varamin Grand Mosque, both in terms of technique and in terms of design and role, have excellent visual values and are considered a very valuable source of study in the field of architectural decorations in the Ilkhanid period. Geometric decorations are considered a very important part of architectural decorations in this building, which through repetition, symmetry, and contrast, have succeeded in forming a single patterning system, and have sufficient order and coherence despite the great variety.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ilkhanid Periods
  • Geometric Designs
  • Great Mosque of Varamin
  • Tile-Working
  • Plaster