اسفنکس و مفاهیم نمادین آن در ایران باستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دکتری باستان‌شناسی، گروه تاریخ و باستانشناسی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

اسفنکس (ابوالهول) یکی از نمادهای ایران باستان است. هدف اصلی، مطالعه ریشه تاریخی و مفاهیم نمادین اسفنکس در ایران باستان است. سؤال تحقیق، سابقه تاریخی نماد اسفنکس و کارکرد آن چگونه است؟ روش تحقیق در این مقاله، بنیادی و تاریخی بوده. شیوه گردآوری اطلاعات به روش مطالعات وسیع کتابخانه‌ای و اسنادی از موضوع اسفنکس در ایران است. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که: سابقه نماد ترکیبی انسان-     حیوان ایران به پیش ‌از تاریخ و منطقه بستک استان هرمزگان می رسد و این نماد در هزاره پنجم پ.م در تپه جعفرآباد خوزستان و تمدن ایلام (شوش) به حالت جانور-  دیوسان بوده. نماد مذکور در هزاره چهارم پ.م. در آکروپلیس شوش بر روی مهرها ادامه داشته و در هزاره چهار و سه پ.م در شهداد کرمان و شهر سوخته سیستان، هلیل‌‌رود و جیرفت نیز دیده شده. این نماد به‌صورت نقش مرد - شیراز همین هزاره ظاهر گشته. بیشترین تعداد نقش اسفنکس در ایران متعلق به هزاره اول پ.م است. مفاهیم نمادین اسفنکس- شیر شامل: تقدس، احترام، ترس، توتم پرستی (حمایت)، حفاظت، خدای خورشید، قدرت و قهرمانی، و بیشترین کارکرد و مفاهیم آن در ایران نماد مثبت داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Esphinx and it’s Functions in an Ancient of Iran

نویسنده [English]

  • Firoozeh Navabakbar
PhD of Archaeology, Department of History and Archaeology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Sphinx (Abu Al- Hol) is one of the symbols that existed in ancient Persia.The Aim of our studying was growing of the History and Concepts of Sphinx in the Ancient of Iran. The questioner of this research was historical background of sphinx and how it functions? The Research Method and Function is Fundamental and Historical. The method of collecting Information’s has been Through library and documental of the subject Sphinx in an Ancient Iran.
 In this paper which is the result of research in the field of Sphinx and its function, the main purpose is to study the historical roots of this symbol and its function in ancient Persia. The research question is that “how is the history of Sphinx symbol and its function in Iran?”, based on the purpose, is the type of fundamental research and the nature and method of historical research in which the subject is studied based on historical documents and archaeological evidences.
Ancient Iranians used winged animals and winged Sphinxes in graffiti, carvings, beaked embossed figures on rocks as well as motifs of buildings, columns and fine arts of jewelry, met al work art, especially weaving fabrics and carpets. It’s normal. Many of these hybrid beings have a human element, such as the head with the animal trunk and sometimes vice versa, and are distant reflections of the prehistoric world. Members of each tribe felt that they were the same with their totem animal (Hosseini, 2016, 2016, Hall, 2001, 107). Semi-animal and semi-human motifs on each subject, in addition to the specific sign of its owner, constituted a talisman that kept its owner in his refuge from evil spirits (Jahanpanah, 2017:78).
These hybrid animals are the birth of the human imagination and have the meaning of natural and unnatural heroes who control and direct the force of nature by supernatural power (Hamman, 83, Sharifzadeh, 2018: 53, Nazeri, A &all. 2017: 5792, Mitt Ford, 2002: 78,209,175). According to Feldman, the hybrid human-animal motifs figures on the Ivory in the late Bronze Age (1200-1600 B.C) have been observed from Greece to Iran.
The results of this study showed that the history of human-animal composite symbol in Iran dates back to the prehistoric period and in Bastak region of Hormozgan province, and then the history of this figure dates back to fifth millennium B.C and as a primary human-animal hybrid being and in the state of animal-demoniac in the hill of Jafarabad, Khuzestan. In the late of fifth millennium B.C, the figure of hybrid beings has been seen in Ilam and especially in Shoosh. In the fourth millennium B.C in the Shoosh Acro Police, the figure of the beast-demoniac has been seen on a variety of seals. In the fourth millennium B.C in the Halilrud basin, this hybrid figure existed. The hybrid figure of male-lion has also existed in Shahdad, Kerman and the burned city of Sistan in the fourth and third millennium B.C. Onwards, it has been seen in the field of Halilrud and Jiroft, in terms of the smallest number of figures of Sphinx in Iran in the first millennium B.C, the Sphinx Functional Foundation goes back to the function of the lion symbol and is rooted in the mythology and religious beliefs of ancient Iran, which includes holiness, respect, fear, totemic (support, protection), Titan, power and heroism. The most important factor of this symbol is positive in Iran.
The concept of symbol Sphinx in Ancient Iran had the meaning the God of Plain/Strength/The Sun/the Light and Patience. In the third and fourth millennium of B.C under the Elamite Civilization had a special meaning. It was a symbol of then functional Religion which meant Strength/ Respect and Direction. The function of this symbol under the other ancient civilization like Crete and Hallil Rood was the same but it meant fully other it, s meaning for those civilizations was negative. The people of those civilizations were sacred of this symbol. It had some specific meaning for them which were Fear/Destruction and Intrigue or Sedition.However the result of this investigation showed that except the two named civilizations, it had other meanings in those times. The Function of the above mentioned symbol had a Positive and Common meaning for other people which they had used them in their daily life.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Lion
  • Sphinx
  • Hybrid beings
  • Function