عنوان مقاله [English]
Wonderology is one of the words used in connection with a tradition rooted in Iranian art and literature. What has been studied and analyzed in this research includes the objective manifestations of the tradition of miracle painting in Iran during the ilkhanid period as an important part of the art and literature of the post-Islamic period. This study aims to achieve a specific context in the characterization and creation of imaginary and miraculous atmosphere in the art of the ilkhanid period, based on a comparative approach between a selection of works of art and fiction, legal and religious texts left from this period, citing Historical studies and descriptive and analytical methods, taken from library and electronic sources, and in general, by classifying miraculous manifestations in the mentioned works, have classified and examined the similarities and differences between them, and asked the question: "What are the flagship versions of the ilkhanid and Jalayerian Iran?" Has answered. Qualitative analysis of data by extracting objective samples and collecting and classifying them in the form of various categories and disciplines such as historical periods, artistic methodology and visual aesthetics and rooting out cognitive and content and inferring theoretical issues related to They take place. In this regard, and by studying numerous visual works as well as literary works and illustrated manuscripts of ilkhanid Iran, it was concluded that the tradition of using forms of wonders in this period due to the use of coherent jurisprudential principles such as imagination, example, myth , Symbolism and cryptography, anthropomorphism and religion, as well as due to various stylistic commonalities and intertextual influences with themes from the Far East and Byzantine civilizations, have a continuous and patterned chain from pre-Islamic times to centuries after the arrival of this religion in Iran. And this, in addition to sharing visual cognitive style, has caused similarities and at the same time special differences. The present study is of a fundamental type and has been compiled by examining previous researches in the field of history, literature, cultural studies and historiography of Iran. The Mongol invasion led by Genghis Khan in 120-21 AD (661 AH) brought the northern parts of Iran under Mongol rule. This period underwent a great change. From a traditional perspective, the relatively short reign of Ghazan Khan is the end point of the intellectual and cultural turmoil resulting from the Mongol invasions. By the middle of the seventh century AH, the Mongols were no longer an external threat, and Hulagu was the hope of a people who looked to the East instead of the Arab West. One of the prominent features of Iranian visual arts is its reliance on myths and religious principles. Therefore, the issues raised in religious religions and rituals have been extensively portrayed for a higher explanation to the followers as well as the memorial aspect. Of course, the approaches of the rulers and their ruling tastes have had a great impact on the formation of artistic contexts of each period; But the spirit of works of art based on intellectual and doctrinal themes has always been current and enduring. This course has appeared in the post-Islamic period in the form of paintings in manuscripts and industrial arts. One of the common features between the art of ancient and Islamic Iran is the attention to the image of supernatural beings and wonders. The creation and embodiment of imaginary creatures and wonders in the visual arts of the land of Iran, has many and varied manifestations. The methods of using visual elements in the structure of these creatures, regardless of the common artistic traditions in each period, are influenced by theoretical sources and special legal principles, each of which has influenced the artist's point of view and imaginary actions of his mind. The continuation of the historical course of this long-standing tradition is known today as "miracle painting" and is manifested in the works of art of Iran, in various formats such as reliefs, statues, textiles, paintings and illustrated manuscripts. In this research, while reviewing the cultural, political and social situation of Iran in the patriarchal era, in a two-way process, the content of various texts left from this period and the study of illustrated copies were tried. In this way, selected texts that contain objective manifestations of miraculous were selected and their theoretical content analysis, typography and stylistics were considered. Also, their imaginary, mythical and supernatural elements and beings were extracted and presented in the form of an illustrated table. The result is that there are several examples of forms of wonders extracted from the texts of the patriarchal period arising from ancient traditions and even cosmic myths and hybrid beings of the pre-Islamic period, especially the Sassanid period. On the other hand, many of these forms of wonders are related to copies of Shahnameh and Wonder books, which have been met with great success by the patriarchal court, especially in this era. The manifestations found in this article are divided into four categories: mythological, mythical, religious and imaginary from a theological and theoretical point of view. This category overlaps in many cases. This means that many creatures that fall into the category of mythology, based on pre-Islamic intellectual heritage are based on religions such as Zoroastrianism and in this sense are also considered religious.