مقام رنگ و سنگِ فیروزه در هنر و تمدن اسلامی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استاد گروه مطالعات هنر، دانشکده هنرهای تجسمی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

10.22034/ra.2022.552149.1201

چکیده

رنگ ها و سنگ ها به دو دلیل در فرهنگ ایرانی اسلامی، جایگاه و مکانتی فراتر از جایگاه فیزیکی و مادی خود دارند.دلیل اول، وجود آیات و روایات مذهبی و تقریر مکانت معنوی رنگ و سنگ در متون مذهبی و اسلامی است. بعنوان مثال نوع نگاه قرآن به رنگ در آیاتی که صبغه الله مطرح می شود یا برخی آیات دیگر در باب رنگهای بهشتی چون سبز و سفید و یا آیات و روایاتی پیرامون تقدس برخی سنگ های مقدس چون حجرالاسود، عقیق ، فیروزه و..
و دلیل دوم توجه به وجوه معنوی رنگ ها و سنگ ها در متون عرفانی . بعنوان مثال آرای علاءالدوله سمنانی در باره مبانی عرفانی و معنوی رنگ ها. یا مثلا مباحثی که در باب سنگ هایی چون عقیق و لعل و یاقوت و زمرد و فیروزه در متون حکمی و عرفانی وجود دارد این مقاله به تحقیق در باب سنگ و رنگ فیروزه در تمدن اسلامی ایرانی و به ویژه شیعی پرداخته است. پرداختن به وجوه مذهبی، تاریخی، هنری و نیز کاربرد فیروزه در تاریخ معماری ایرانی که با نقش یافتن بر پهنه گنبد سلطانیه درخششی بی نظیر یافته و به یکی از رنگ های ثابت معماری مقدس در ایران تبدیل می شود، وجوه توصیفی و تحلیلی این بحث خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The place of turquoise color and stone in Islamic art and civilization

نویسنده [English]

  • Hasan Bolkhari Ghehi
 Professor, Department of Advanced Studies in Art, School of Visual Arts, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

In Islamic thought and mysticism, there is a perfect relationship between matter and meaning. That is, every material thing has a spiritual form. The basis of this idea is Greek and Plato(Famous Greek philosopher) has spoken about it in his works. But this idea was accepted as a principle by Muslim thinkers. Mir fenderski is one of these thinkers. He sang in a famous poem:" The universe is very beautiful with these stars, What is in the higher world has a form in the material world. If one ascends from earth to heaven with the power of knowledge, He realizes that the material face is the same as his celestial face."
Muslim artists tried to create their works based on this theosophical principle. The materials used by the artists were also of theosophical interest. For example, factors such as color, light, geometry, stone and…..
Color is one of the most important elements in the manifestation of meaning in form, For this reason, it has been discussed in philosophical and theosophical sources, For example in the works of thinkers such as farabi, Avicenna, sheikh Eshrag And mystics whose name I will mention.
So for two reasons, colors and stones have a spiritual and transcendental status in Islamic and Iranian culture. The first reason is the presence of religious verses and hadiths in the Qur'an and Islamic texts and hadiths.
For example, there are verses in the Qur'an about the colors green, yellow and white And also about stones like black stone (حجرالاسود) In Islamic traditions, there are hadiths about sacred stones such as agate and turquoise.
Some verses of the Qur'an in this regard are: 'Call on your Lord, ' they said, 'to make known to us what her color shall be. ' 'Your Lord says: "The cow is yellow, a rich yellow pleasing to the onlookers." ' (Sura 2: AL-BAQARA. 69) In this verse, God refers to the psychological effect of yellow on the spectators.
In another verse, God also considers green the favorite color of the heavenly beings: Upon them there will be garments of green silk, rich brocade, and they will be adorned with bracelets of silver. Their Lord will give them a pure beverage to drink. (Sura 76: AL-INSAN (MAN). 21)
There are also narrations in Islamic hadiths about the sanctity of turquoise color and stone. For example, In one of these narrations, Mufaddal Ibn Umar, who is one of the disciples and relatives of the Imam Reza (the eighth Imam of the Shiites)  says: I entered Imam Sadegh while I was holding a turquoise ring. He told me : " O Mufaddal, turquoise is the cause of joy and happiness for the believers, It is repeated and it is added that whoever holds turquoise and pursues something will have his needs met or he gets what he wants."
And the second reason is to pay attention to the spiritual aspects of colors in mystical texts Like the votes of Najm al din Kobra ,Ala Al-Dawlah Semnani, Najm Razi and Khajeh Rashid al-Din Fazlullah and Hafez.
for example see this poem by Hafez ( Mystic and famous Iranian poet( :
"The stone and the clay, the ruby and the cornelian, maketh with auspicious glance, Whoever the value of the breath of the breeze of Yaman knew."or this important point that Najmuddin Kobra mentions in his important works, Fawaih al-Jamal and Fawatih al-Jalal: From now on, the heavenly truths will be shown to the mystic with colors.
Also, an important and significant discussion that Alaa al-Dawla Semnani has brought in some of his works.  He speaks of a system of seven colors in this works. Ala al-Dawlah Semnani uses colors to explain the stages of the mystic's ascent to the spiritual worlds and attributes each stage to a prophet. Like the colors green, yellow, black and white This theory seems to have had an important impact on Islamic art and architecture. Important research has been conducted in the Islamic world that shows that artists and architects have paid attention to mystical theories
The relationship between spirituality and color in Islamic civilization is due to the principle of correspondence in Islamic thought. This principle implies that every object in this world has the form and Ideas of a transcendent world. Therefore, color and stone also represent a spiritual matter. This is especially true for some colors and stones.
This article has researched about stone and turquoise color in Islamic and Iranian civilization. This color will be researched in religious, historical, artistic and architectural texts. In particular, the dome of Soltanieh will be discussed as one of the most important Iranian buildings. And the relationship of this building, especially its turquoise dome with religious and historical texts will be discussed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • color
  • Turquoise Stone
  • Islamic Art
  • Islamic architecture
دوره 5، شماره 2
مرداد 1401
صفحه 5-16
  • تاریخ دریافت: 31 فروردین 1401
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 0-727 فروردین 2
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 06 اردیبهشت 1401
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 01 مرداد 1401