عنوان مقاله [English]
The Battle of Edessa was one of the mos t famous a nd important wars between the two empires of the Eas t (Sassanid) and the Wes t (Romans) in its time. Shapur the Great was the second Sassanid emperor to lead the Sassanid army in battles with the Romans in successive wars with the Romans. According to some his torians, he had three battles with the Romans; the third battle took place in 260 AD in Edessa (a region in Turkey) with Roman emperor Valerian. Because of such a great victory, Shapur ordered that the scene of his victory be engraved in several places. Naqsh-e Ros tam is one of the places where the scene of Shapur’s victory in the battle of Edessa and the kneeling and humiliation of Valerian is shown in a bas relief. The scene of the victory of Shapur and the humiliation of the Roman Emperor, in addition to the reliefs, have been depicted as an important his torical event in the following centuries, but in some Wes tern paintings, this his tory has been narrated and depicted in different ways. The dis tortion of the narrative of Shapur’s victory over Valerian has continued in Wes tern writers even in later centuries. It is said that he was cons tantly ridiculed by the people and after that, whenever Shapur the Great wanted to ride a horse, he would put his foot on his neck. After Valerian died in captivity, his skin was s tuffed with s traw and shaped into a human body and placed in one of the temples. Contrary to all narrations and according to the inscription that exis ts in the Kaaba of Zoroas ter, Shapur the Great captured Valerian and his companions and servants and benefited from their knowledge. The truth of this claim can also be found in the poems of Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh. This s tudy intends to answer this ques tion: “What is the reason for the difference in the narration of Shapur’s treatment of Valerian in this battle in some works of Wes tern painting?” The result of the s tudy shows that in mos t of the Wes tern paintings with this subject, the reason for Valerian’s humiliation and the feeling of remorse on his face is attributed to the narrations of the punishment of the torturers and persecutors of the early Chris tians. Some Wes tern his torians, because of their religious bigotry, as well as the Chris tians who were persecuted by Emperor Valerian, have considered his humiliation and Shapur’s mis treatment to be God’s revenge, and this has led to exaggerations and dis tortions of this s tory. In general, in the relief of Naghsh-e Ros tam, the s tory of Shapur’s victory in the battle of Edessa with the capture of Valerian and his coming to terms with Shapur’s horse is depicted. Shapur sets his foot on the fallen Valerian while riding his horse. In mos t Wes tern paintings, Valerian is depicted in all scenes, such as the s tool of Shapur riding a horse, with a face that shows a sign of supplication and humiliation. This research has been done by descriptive and analytical methods.