عنوان مقاله [English]
The range of theoretical sciences related to visual arts in the present age based on historical achievements, ranging from the Renaissance scientific studies to a wide range of philosophical and aesthetic theories, which has broadened from the Enlightenment age and has encompassed a variety of theses, antitheses and synthesis, has been growing to the present day. Meanwhile, interdisciplinary studies, as well as theories that eliminate the boundaries between theoretical and artistic foundations and try to somehow unify them, are more welcomed by the art historians, art-lovers and artists than the other methods. Among these studies is Iconography which is the combination of art historians, mythologists, and semiotics’ findings, and because of it, it is more scientific and easier to interpret and understand works of art on the basis of the historical and cultural context of the creation time. Iconological study, as one of the most effective ways of analyzing and criticizing the works of visual arts, has become a universal and applied method in discovering the meanings and concepts involved in these works and has been used as a targeted and promising strategy for researchers. Paying attention to the cultural, social, historical and artistic backgrounds in relation to the time and place of the creation of works of art, has led this interpretive approach to an objective direction and even beyond that, it exceeds the artist's mental intentions. Today, Iconology serves as an instrumental tool for explaining and interpreting the works of Iranian painting and helping the audience as a reliable way of decoding and perceiving images.
The consistency of the stages of iconology with the visual and ideological structure of Iranian painting offers a powerful opportunity for researchers in the field of Iranian-Islamic art to utilize it based on the contemporary and relevant needs of the research and culture of society. Also, by relying on the rich and meaningful Iranian literature which is the source for many of the original paintings of this land, as well as the semantic analysis and decoding of literary works related to the themes of the images, it is possible to pave the way for the iconological analysis and interpretation of these works. The present study has been conducted with the focus on the "Masti Lahuti va Nasuti ", by Sultan Mohammad Naghash, belonging to the Divan Hafiz of Sam Mirza. Due to its conceptual and mythological atmosphere, this work has many possibilities for the study of the iconography. This image, depicted in the Shah Tahmasb Safavid era in the tenth century AH, is an admirable portrayal of a unique way of translating a poem from Hafez. This paper will try to answer the following question from an icological perspective: “What phylosophical, mystical, lyrical, and mythological concepts are behind the relationships between icons and the visual atmosphere governing the image?” The present study is of a theoretical type, using descriptive-analytical method and using library resources, the above-mentioned painting has been analyzed and a two-way relationship between form and content has been established to discover the meanings beyond the visual structure of the painting. As a result, the painter, by distinguishing three areas of the image, and by being influenced by the text of the poem has depicted the semantic structure derived from the Nasuti, Lahut, and Jebroot, and has utilized the icons and visual symbols associated with each of these areas.
The purpose of this research is to achieve a model and system of communication between the concepts and ideas hidden in the heart of the painting and assess the quality and quantity of the painter's being influenced by the poet.