عنوان مقاله [English]
The purpose of writing this article is to study the Mugals school of painting with the formation of the work of Hamza-namah, in the creation of which Iranian artists had an important role. In this research, we seek to: What are the effective factors in the formation of the Mugals school of painting? The structure of this school of art is derived from which schools? What effect has Iranian painting had on this school? As a finding of this research, it can be stated that the presence of Iranian artists in the second period of Homayoun Mughl’s reign(962-963AH/1553-1554AD) in India caused the influence of Iranian art on Indian art and the core of Mugals school of painting emerged in which subsequently the attitude And there are significant approaches that need to be explored and pondered. . Moghal’s coincidence with the Safavids led to babur to become acquainted with artists such as Behzad, and the Behzad Art School was welcomed at the Moghal court before Iranian artists immigrated to India It should be noted at first, this school was derived from schools such as Herat and Tabriz, but later an eclectic method consisting of Iranian, Indian and European elements emerged, Which later influenced Indian and Iranian painting. But what is known as the Mughal School of Painting was influenced by Iranian painting and schools of painting were established in the Indian states. The presence of these artists, their cooperation and efforts with the Mughal court, created a huge illustrated version such as Hamza-nama and this great work can be considered the beginning of the formation of this school and known as one of the best examples of painting in the Moghal school and the Islamic book designing of India. The existence of some plant, animal and celestial elements has created realistic or, conversely, imaginative scenes that have been very similarly depicted in Safavid schools of painting. One of the important features of Hamza-nama paintings is the abundance of characters in each scene, the painter of which, unlike the usual paintings of the era, completely defines the different moods of the characters. Iranian artists have taken every step in this school None of this was based on coincide and they have used Iranian painting using the method of colors. The story of Hamza-nama is one of the prolific Iranian folk epics in the biography of Amir Hamza, the Prophet’s (pbuh) uncle and his battles, and a mythological description and legend of his heroism and bravery in the face of infidelity, evil and sin, which was admired by the Moghal kings. Various sources have numbered one thousand two hundred and two thousand and four hundred of these paintings, of which one hundred fifty two are left, which were curated by Mir seyyd Ali-e Tabrizi(D.975AH/ 1566AD) and Abdul samad Shirazi(969AH,1560AD). After Hamza-nama, other large illustrated versions such as Babar-nama, Akbar-nama and large Albumes such as Golshan and Golestan were formed, which are very important in their place.Finally, as a result, it should be said that the interests and desires of the Mugals sultans on the other hand, and the lack of a suitable bed and space for painting in parts of the Safavid court on the other hand caused many artists to migrate to the Mugals court. This migration became the main factor in the formation of the Mugals school of painting, and according to that, the meaning and concept of space in the art of painting changed according to the Mugals.The method of this research is descriptive-analytical and with a historical approach, it seeks to re-read the important factor in creating the Gurkanian school of painting and the first valuable work in it. Scientific data has been collected in a library style among historical and artistic works in Islamic civilization.