واکاوی مفهوم «گروتسک» در ادبیات و نقاشی (دورۀ رنسانس)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه تاریخ تطبیقی و تحلیلی هنر اسلامی، دانشکده علوم نظری و مطالعات عالی هنر، دانشگاه هنر تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 عضو هیأت علمی گروه ارتباط تصویری، دانشکده هنرهای تجسمی، دانشگاه هنر تهران، تهران، ایران.

10.22034/ra.2021.532473.1061

چکیده

گروتسک سبکی خارق العاده از هنر تزیینی برجای مانده از روم باستان است که دوباره احیا شده و در پایان قرن پانزدهم و اوایل قرن شانزدهم میلادی مورد استفاده بسیار زیادی قرار گرفته است. در گونة ادبیات گروتسکی، مفاهیمی نظیر: وحشت آفرینی، طنز، هجو، مبالغه، ابزورد، تحریف واقعیت و نظایر آن دیده می شود. استفاده از اصطلاح گروتسک به کاریکاتور نیز گسترش می یابد. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، ارائه مفاهیم گوناگون از دیدگاه های برخی از اندیشه نگاران گروتسک در حوزه ادبی و همچنین آشکار ساختن دیدگاه بصری بعضی از نقاشان رنسانس سده های پانزدهم و شانزدهم میلادی نسبت به آن است. گروتسک را می توان تردیدی بین مفهوم ترس و کمدی تعریف کرد که هرگز به طور کامل به یکی پایبند نمی ماند و دیگری را نیز به طور واقعی رد نمی کند. دور شدن از مدل های کلاسیکِ نظم، تعقل، هماهنگی، تعادل و شکل، خطر ورود به جهان گروتسک را زیاد می کند. گروتسک می تواند تقریباً از هر نظریه ای پشتیبانی کند. گروتسک در آثار تصویری رنسانس اغلب شامل نوعی تلفیق و ترکیب انسان با حیوانات، گیاهان، اشیاء، عناصر طبیعت یا ترکیبات دیگر است. این پژوهش به شیوة توصیفی و تا حدودی تحلیلی انجام گرفته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Study on the Concept of "Grotesque" in Literature and Painting (Renaissance)

نویسندگان [English]

  • alireza taheri 1
  • mehrdad keshtiara 2
1   Professor, Department of Comparative and Analytical History of Islamic Art, Faculty of Theoretical Sciences and Higher Arts Studies, Tehran University of Art, Tehran, Iran.
2 Faculty Member of Video Communication Department, Faculty of Visual Arts, Tehran University of Art, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study is to present various concepts from the views of some grotesque thinkers in the field of literature and also to reveal the visual views of some Renaissance painters of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries AD.  The grotesque is an extraordinary style of decorative art left over from ancient Rome that has been revived and used extensively in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. The grotesque has appeared in the ancient mythology, culture and art of all nations. Grotesque in art and literature may refer to something that simultaneously evokes a strangely disturbing feeling as well as compassionate pity in the audience. In the genre of grotesque literature, concepts such as: horror, humor, satire, exaggeration, absurdity, distortion of reality and the like are seen in different layers. The characteristics defined for the grotesque are intertwined in some cases and may simultaneously have contradictory internal elements, for example: at the same time ridiculous and scary, real and imaginary. The most important feature of grotesque can also be expressed as follows: the simultaneous presence of laughter and something that is not compatible with laughter.The grotesque source in literature can be seen in the ability of man and the use of his talent and power of perception and imagination to find a unique and powerful charm in monsters and monsters. The psychological reasons for this tendency are not entirely clear, but the tendency itself has had a profound effect on different cultures, from the most primitive societies to the most complex cultures. No genre has matched the grotesque more than Gothic. Gothic style is often associated with grotesque, as both describe order in disorder. Gothic is sometimes so associated with the grotesque that it is sometimes confused. The use of the term “Grotesque”, which was extended to literature in the sixteenth century, and especially to caricature, therefore, the expansion of caricature brings another broad meaning to the grotesque, which is synonymous with bizarre, unnatural, ridiculous, funny. And it becomes a caricature. Grotesque spread to many parts of Europe with the help of gravure and its reproduction. The grotesque made its way into most of the arts and appeared on many decorative works, illustrations of manuscripts (even religious and sacred), plaster reliefs of palaces and churches, and more. In Roman ornaments, grotesques are the decorative arrangements of arabesques with intertwined garlands and small, extravagant shapes of humans and animals that are usually arranged delicately and symmetrically around a kind of architectural frame. Such designs were common in ancient Rome and were used as wall decorations, murals, floor mosaics, etc. The grotesque can be defined as skepticism between the concept of fear and comedy, which never fully adheres to one and does not really reject the other; moving away from the classical models of order, reason, harmony, balance and form increases the risk of entering the grotesque world. The grotesque is everywhere and can support almost any theory. Grotesque in Renaissance paintings often includes a combination of man with animals, plants, objects, elements of nature or other compounds. The term grotesque in the Renaissance not only includes wonderful and wonderful things, but also imagines that it creates a completely different world. A familiar world in which the realm of inanimate objects is not separated from animals, plants, animals, and humans, and the laws of statics, symmetry, and proportions are no longer valid. Leonardo da Vinci’s drawings of grotesque human figures, often referred to as the earliest forms of caricature, are in fact more an in-depth study of human and grotesque physiognomy than the expression of an art form. Cartoon or caricature portrait was not known as a form of art in classical or medieval times. Artists were very familiar with the art of humor at the time: comics, satires, and grotesque art. The grotesque found its way into most of the arts and appeared on many decorative works, illustrations of manuscripts (even religious and sacred), plaster reliefs of palaces and churches, and more. Among the artists who contributed to the expansion of the grotesque was Rosso Fiorentino, the Florentine Mannerist painters, one of the main founders of the Fontainebleau School. He and his students and assistants enriched the term grotesque culture by combining them with the decorative form of geometric clasps, depicting leather geometric clasps in plaster or wooden molds (which are an important element in grotesque representations). Beginning in the 16th century, some artists began to combine grotesque decorative elements in their contemporary work, including: Filipino Lippi (1457-1504, Florentine painter), Luca Signorelli (Italian painter 1441-1523), etc. The grotesques were understood as a kind of artistic display based on the creative power of decoration with their monsters and strange eclectic forms. Grotesque designs could expand on the surfaces. This research has been done in a descriptive and somewhat analytical way.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grotesque
  • Grotesque literature
  • Grotesque art
  • Renaissance painting
  • Grotesque ornaments
دوره 5، شماره 1
اردیبهشت 1401
صفحه 27-37
  • تاریخ دریافت: 29 خرداد 1400
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 0-727 فروردین 2
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 14 تیر 1400
  • تاریخ اولین انتشار: 01 اردیبهشت 1401