پژوهشی در ویژگی های صوری سنگ‌نگاره‌های غار دوشه لرستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی  ارشد رشته نقاشی، گروه نقاشی، دانشکده هنر، دانشگاه الزهرا، تهران، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه مجسمه سازی و نقاشی، دانشکده هنرهای تجسمی، پردیس هنرهای زیبا، دانشگاه تهران، ایران.

10.22034/ra.2021.526731.1035

چکیده

غار دوشه با سنگ نگاره هایی که قدمت آن­ها به حدود دو هزار سال پیش از میلاد برمی گردد ازجمله منابع مهم تصویری هنر ایران در استان لرستان به شمار می رود. دیوارهای مسطح این غار حامل حدود یکصد و ده نقش سیاه رنگ با موضوع غالب شکار و صحنه های رزمگاهی است که در آن انسان­ها سوار بر اسب و یا به­ صورت پیاده و اکثراً در حال تیراندازی و جنگیدن ترسیم ­شده ­اند. حیواناتی هم چون اسب، بز و حیوانی شبیه به گرگ بر دیوارهای این غار نقاشی شده است. با توجه به این که این نقوش تاکنون به ­دقت مورد تجزیه  و تحلیل کارشناسان قرار نگرفته است، پژوهش حاضر باهدف تبیین ویژگی های تصویری نقوش این غار به طرح این سؤال پرداخت که: سنگ نگاره های غار دوشه دارای چه ویژگی های بصری هستند؟ و در راستای پاسخ به سؤال مذکور، با روشی توصیفی- تحلیلی و گردآوری اطلاعات از منابع کتابخانه ای، نقاشی های این غار از منظر نحوه بازنمایی، رنگ، عمق نمایی، حجم پردازی، تناسبات و ترکیب بندی مورد تجزیه ­و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می ­دهد نقوش غار دوشه به شیوه چکیده نگاری و با ماهیت روایی، با استفاده از ماده سیاه رنگ بر دیوارهای غار کشیده شده است. تمامی نقوش فاقد حجم پردازی بوده و عمق نمایی و عدم رعایت تناسبات در برخی از نقوش قابل ­مشاهده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study on the Formal Features of the Lithographs of Luristan Dusheh Cave

نویسندگان [English]

  • Monireh Ahari Mostafavi 1
  • Mahyar Asadi 2
1 Master Student of Painting, Department of Painting, Faculty of Art, Al-zahra University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Sculpture and Painting, School of Visual Arts, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

According to the excavations, Luristan region has been inhabited for a long time. The evolution of time and various natural events have enabled the evolution of civilization in that region and its inhabitants have made progress due to this evolution and gradually created a more complete life by inventing and creating new tools and instruments. Early Iranian plateau in the Zagros region, we can name the lithographs of stone shelters in Luristan region such as Humian, Mir Molasses and  Dusheh Cave. Among them, Dusheh Cave with lithographs that are about two thousand years old, has been studied in this article. Dusheh Cave is a historical and natural monument located in the village of “Karshorab” in the “Chegni” section of Luristan. Regarding Dusheh Cave, unfortunately, despite the large number of images available, little research has been done and as a result, resources for the present study are very limited. This cave was first discovered by “Hamid Izadpanah”. He took photographs of the lithographs of this cave and in the first volume of his book entitled “Ancient and historical monuments of  Luristan” which was published in July 1353, he described the lithographs of this cave. On the flat walls of this cave are painted about one hundred and ten black carvings. Most of the cave motifs depict people fighting and hunting and animals on the battlefield. In them, humans are depicted on horseback or on foot, mostly shooting and fighting. Animals such as horses, goats and wolf-like animals are engraved on the walls of this cave. Also, this cave has two inscriptions, which today is half of an inscription that remains. Considering the main purpose of this article, which was to explain the formal features of the lithographs of Dusheh Cave, the question is as follows: What are the visual characteristics of the lithographs of Dusheh Cave? The present study is qualitative in nature and will analyze the data with a descriptive-analytical method and collecting information from library sources. The results of this research show that the designs of Dusheh cave have been drawn on the walls of the cave in an abstract and narrative manner. In some of these motifs, we see depth and distortion of proportions. Also, the color in all the works is black and no volume has been done in the pictures. One of the main features of the lithographs of Dusheh Cave is the narrative aspect of the designs. In some scenes of Dusheh cave motifs, especially the battlefield scene, the viewer sees images in which a story of war, how to fight and defend the attacked people can be seen. Another motif is the role of the mountain goat, which has been widely used in different periods, and in these petroglyphs, they have been drawn in profile and in a picture with a profile body and an all-red head. The important point is that during the comments made, most of these motifs have been destroyed today and no trace of them remains except some images.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Lithograph
  • Dusheh Cave
  • Painting
  • Cave Painting
  • Neolithic Painting